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Horns of Bratislava (Pozsonyi kifli)

Horns of Bratislava (Pozsonyi kifli)


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I prepared the dough first.

I made the yeast leaven in warm milk (be careful not to be hot).

In a bowl I mixed the sifted flour with the salt, the powdered sugar, the two beaten eggs and the butter that I melted and cooled.

I added the milk with the yeast a little and I kneaded a dough that must remain elastic, non-sticky and come off the walls of the bowl.

If necessary, add or subtract 50 gr of flour. I added a little more.

I left the dough to cool until I prepared the filling. It would have been very good with raisins, but since I didn't have it in the house, I did without them.

From water and sugar with a little lemon juice I made a syrup, which I boiled for 2-3 minutes. Then I put it so hot over the ground walnuts. I added the rum and orange peel.

I took the dough out of the cold and shaped balls of ~ 32 gr. I didn't have anything to measure exactly so I made them with approximately this weight. 32 balls came out.

I flattened each ball and gave it an ellipsoidal shape (ie a more rounded rectangle at the ends).

I put the filling stretched out, rolled it and shaped it into a horseshoe.

I placed them in the tray lined with baking paper, leaving room between them because they will grow a lot.

With the help of a brush I greased them with egg.

Now the recipe said to grease with yolk first, let it dry, and before putting it in the oven, grease it with egg white.

I greased them directly with the whole beaten egg. I later understood that this gave them a beautiful marbled appearance.

Next time, stop doing nonsense.

I put the tray in the preheated oven, left the oven grill on the middle step until they browned a little and started to crack on top, then I moved the tray higher in the oven.

I moved the tray up after 15 minutes, and after another 10 minutes they were baked.

I took them out on a grill and let them cool covered with a clean napkin. Not too obvious, that only those who could resist the temptation.


Izabella főhercegnő, a Pozzony photo director

Izabella főhercegnő száztíz évvel ezelőtti, a korabeli várost bemutató fotóiból kínál hangulatos összeállítást a Pozsonyi Kifli Polgári Társulás 2017-es falinaptára, miglioret november 18-tól a pozsonyi adventi váseklek is bes.

A Pozsonyi Kifli Polgári Társulás gondozásában harmadik éve megjelenő naptárba ezúttal Izabella főhercegnő száztíz éves felvételei közül válogattak képeket a kiadvány szerkesztői.
A főhercegnő nagy méretű, 21 & # 21527 cm-es üvegnegatívokat használt, így rendkívül részletes felvételeket készíthetett. Ez irányú tevékenységét Pozsonyban kezdte, ahol a szívesen fényképezkedő család megörökítésében több fotográfus is jeleskedett. Izabella művészi felvételeit számos szaklap közölte, és a nemzetközi fényképkiállítások közönsége is rendszeresen találkozhatott velük. Értékes fotográfiai hagyatéka ma a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum gyűjteményébe tartozik.

Isabella von Croÿ-Dülmen's post office is located in Habsburg-Tescheni Frigyes, the town is located in Habsburg-Dinasztia egyv lebb. A főhercegi család - mivel Pozsony társadalmi életében nagy jelentősége volt állandó jelenlétének - az egykori Grassalkovich-palotában rendezte be otthonát. Kezdetben csak bérelték, majd 1897-ben meg is vásárolták a palotát.

A gyönyörű barokk épület számtalan előkelő vendéget fogadott, Ferenc Ferdinánd is gyakran tette tiszteletét itt. Izabella főhercegnő azt remélte, hogy a trónörökös benősül a családjába. Egyszer azonban a kastély teniszpályáján megtalálta Ferenc Ferdinánd elveszített zsebóráját, és csalódottan, feldúltan látta, hogy az órába helyezett fényképen nem a leánya, hanem az egyik udvarhölgye szekó

Izabella példás családanyaként irányította a főhercegi udvartartást, segített férjének a birtokok igazgatásában, kötelességtudó, kilenc gyermekét gondosan és szeretettel nevelő nagyasszony volt. Kortársai a komoly ambíciókkal megáldott főhercegné szépsége és bölcsessége mellett rendkívüli akaraterejére és hatalomvágyára is rámutattak. Rossz nyelvek szerint papucs alatt tartotta Frigyest.

Izabella a társadalmi helyzetének megfelelően egész életében fokozott érdeklődést mutatott a közélet és a jótékonykodás iránt. A szociálisan érzékeny, elkötelezett asszony támogatta a magyarországi népi kézműipar fejlődését, a nevét viselő nőegyletet alapított Pozsony és környéke házi hímzőiparának felvirágoztatásonyáy. Családjával gyakran kilovagolt a város környékére, szerette a vadászatot, és elismert teniszjátékos volt.

Legnagyobb szenvedélye azonban - a későbbi nemzedékek szerencséjére - a fényképezés lett, miglior a 19. század kilencvenes éveire már a főúri rétegeket is meghódította. Az amatőr fotózás első nagy korszakáról beszélünk. A fotálás azonban ekkor még drága mulatság volt, tömegek nem hódolhattak neki.

A naptár megvásárolható november 18. és december 22. között a Pozsonyi Kifli PT. standjánál, az adventi vásáron. Helyszín: Ferenciek tere (Františkánske námestie), a civilszektorban, leghátul, a Vízhordó szökőkút előtt.


Bratislava (Pozsonyi kifli) croissants - Recipes

Kipfel are flaky, crescent-shaped rolls as well as crescent cookies.

Origin: Austria

Other names: America: butterhorns southern Austria: kipferl Czech Republic: howl Hungary: howl Germany: kipferln Romania and Serbia: howl. Sigmund Freud, in an 1885 letter from Paris back to his native Vienna, noted: "I did at last manage to say 'croissants,' since I always get kipfel with my coffee. "

Cookies

The introduction of sugar to Persia led to the emergence there in the seventh century of numerous small pastries and eventually throughout the Arabic World. Then as sugar became more commonplace in Europe, every country adopted cookies.

1. Iran & mdashhadgi badah, klaitcha, naan-e berenji, naan-e nokhodchi

2. Iraq and Middle East & mdashghraybeh, kourabie, ma'mamoul, travados

3. Turkey & mdashmarunchi-nos, mustachudos, raki biscuits, wine masses, foulares

4. Syria & mdashras-ib-adjway

5. Tunisia & mdashmakroud

6. Morocco & mdashkaab el gh'zal, debla, raricha

7. Greece & mdashbiscuits, reshicas

8. Italy & mdashmacaroons, cookies, impades, evictions

9. Hungary & mdashpog & # 224csa, kindli, kranzli

10. Poland & mdashkichel, hamantaschen, reshinke

11. Russia & mdashkaletzin

12. Austria & mdashkipfel, nusskipferln, polster zipfel

13. Germany & mdashjeback lebkuchen mahltaschen mandelbrot plaetzcehn pfefferneusse zimstern

14. Netherlands & mdashboterkoeke

15. Denmark & ​​mdashjodekager

The idea of ​​small crescent-shaped breads appears to have emerged in Austria during the late seventeenth century, then spread to France. Many believe that after Marie Antoinette married Louis XVI of France in 1770, she so missed kipfel that she arranged for a Viennese baker to travel to Paris to instruct his French counterparts on how to make it, and the roll soon became the croissant. By this point, the kipfel was about a century old and indelibly implanted in central European gastronomy. In addition to savory kipfels, central Europeans enjoyed a variety of crescent-shaped sweet treats as well.

According to legend, the origins of these crescent-shaped baked goods date back to 1683, when the three hundred thousand-strong Ottoman army laid siege to the walled city of Vienna, Austria. The Turks undertook to secretly dig a tunnel under thc barricades in the darkness of night. City bakers, at work in the wee hours of the morning in their underground chambers, heard the noise of the construction, alerted the authorities, and foiled the underground attack. Finally, with the timely military intervention of the Poles, Bavarians, and others, the Turks were repelled.

Purportedly, local Viennese bakers fashioned special small breads and cakes in the shape of a crescent, the symbol displayed on the Turkish flag, to honor the end of the Ottoman siege, in which they had played a role. These pastries proved perfect to serve in a second prominent Austrian institution engendered by the Ottoman invasion, the coffeehouse, which emerged as a result of chests of coffee beans left behind by the Turks. Others suggest that the bakers had actually concluded that the situation was so dire that they baked crescent-shaped breads to curry favor with the Turks, then sold them to a grateful populace afterward. A third group dismisses any connection between the bread and the siege, maintaining that it was a venerable local baked good shaped to represent animal horns, and that the Turkish connection was merely a myth conjured up later.

In any case, Austrian bakers originally called the little pointed loaves of white bread zipfel (German meaning "corner / tip"), also spelled ciphel. Zipfel is still used, in conjunction with polster (cushion / padding) polsterzipfel refers to a jam-filled Austrian cookie, also known as Vienna kipfel and in Germany as hasen & # 246rchen (little rabbit ears). Meanwhile, the Viennese took to mispronouncing the pointed breads as kipfel, and the word soon becoming a synonym for the German h & # 246rnchen (crescent). Variations of the Austrian pronunciation spread throughout central and eastern Europe.

A crescent-shaped variation of this yeast pastry called Pressburger kipplach is named after Pressburg, the German name for Bratislava, one of the oldest and most important European] ewish communities and commonly considered the dividing line between eastern and western Ashkenazim. Today, Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia. To complicate matters further, this pastry is also called Pozsonyi kifli after the Hungarian named for Pressburg / Bratislava.

To further confuse the situation, the term kipfel was also applied to small crescent cookies (zuckerkipfel), including those made from various unleavened doughs and yeast kuchen dough, and one similar to kugelhopf but enriched with topfen, a cheese that the Gcrmans call quark. The topfen type of kipfel is traditional on Shavuot and other special dairy meals. In the nineteenth century, Hungarian housewives sometimes substituted mashed potatoes for the butter in the dough.

In Yiddish, the word kipfel came to specify crescent cookies, both leavened and unleavened, and not the croissant bread. One form of the cookies, nusskipferlin (nut crescents), still ranks among the favorite Ashkenazic cookies. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, Jewish immigrants brought the kipfel to America. Thc American cookbook Aunt Babette's (Cincinnati, 1889), includes onc of the earliest records in English of the word in a recipe for "Wiener Kipfel," which consists of yeast dough triangles filled with "beaten whites of eggs, raisins, almonds and citron," and with the edges pinched together. The first edition of The Settlement Cookbook (Milwaukee, 1901) contains several recipes for kipfel, some with yeast and others without, but all made with butter. In the twentieth century, vegetable shortening and margarine were sometimes substituted for the topfen and butter in kipfel, expanding its usage in kosher households. In Procter & Gamble's 1933 booklet Crisco Recipes for the Jewish Housewife, written in Yiddish and English, a kipfel is made, of course, with vegetable shortening. In late twentieth century America, kipfel, particularly with an unleavened cream cheese dough, became better known as rugelach.

Ashkenazic Cookie Crescents (Rugelach)

32 large, 48 medium, or 64 small cookies

  • 1 cup (2 sticks) unsalted butter or margarine, softened
  • 1 cup (8 ounces) cream cheese, softened
  • 1 tablespoon sour cream
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 2 tablespoons sugar (optional)
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla or almond extract (optional)
  • 2 cups (10 ounces) all-purpose flour, sifted
  • 1 cup jam, such as apricot or caspberry, or 1/4 cup (1/2 stick) melted butter
  • 1/2 cup sugar mixed with 1-1 / 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
  • 3/4 cup dried currants or raisins (optional)
  • Egg wash (1 large egg beaten with 1 teaspoon water or milk)
  • About 2 tablespoons sugar, or 2 tablespoons sugar mixed with
    1 teaspoon ground cinnamon, for sprinkling

1. To make the dough: In a large bowl, beat together the butter, cream cheese, and sour cream until light and fluffy, about 5 minutes. Add the salt and, if using. sugar and vanilla. Gradually beat in the flour. Divide the dough into 4 equal pieces, form into balls, flatten into 1-inch-thick rounds, wrap in plastic wrap, and refrigerate for at least 6 hours or overnight.

2. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper or use ungreased sheets.

3. Let the dough stand at room temperature until malleable. On a lightly floured surface (or a surface sprinkled with cinnamon-sugar), roll out each dough piece to a 1/8-inch-thick round, about 9 inches in diameter. Brush with jam and sprinkle with cinnamon-sugar, leaving a 1/2-inch border around the edge. If using, sprinkle with the currants.

4. Cut each round into equal wedges & mdash12 for medium cookies, 8 for large cookies, or 16 for small cookies. Starting from the wide end, roll up the wedges toward the point and gently bend to form a crescent.

5. Place the crescents on the prepared baking sheets, pointed side down, 1 inch apart. Brush with the egg wash and sprinkle lightly with the sugar.

6. Bake until golden, 20 to 25 minutes. Let the cookies stand until firm, about 1 minute, then transfer to a wire rack and let cool completely. Store in an airtight container at room temperature for up to 5 days or in the freezer for up to 3 months.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Lage Bearbeiten

Die Stadt liegt im Südwesten des Landes im Bezirk Bratislava, beim Dreiländereck Slowakei-Österreich-Ungarn. Die jeweiligen Grenzen sind vom Zentrum fünf Kilometer nach Westen, bzw. 20 Kilometer nach Süden entfernt. Die Grenze zu Tschechien liegt 62 Kilometer nördlich. Wien, die Hauptstadt Österreichs, befindet sich 55 Kilometer westlich von Bratislava. Beide Städte is located in Twin City (Zwillingsstadt) and is located in the center of Europaregion Centrope. The Hauptstadt Tschechiens, Prague, is located at 290 Kilometers northwest and the Hauptstadt Ungarns, Budapest, 165 Kilometers south (all Angels are located on the Luftlinie).

Bratislava befindet sich beiderseits der Donau (slowakisch dunnage), welche das Stadtgebiet von West nach Südost durchfließt und im Stadtgebiet zwischen 200 und 300 Meter breit ist. [1] Im Westen des Stadtgebiets liegt die Thebener Pforte (Devinska brána), das Durchbruchstal zwischen dem Braunsberg am südlichen, dort österreichischen Ufer und dem Thebener Kogel am nördlichen, slowakischen Ufer. An dieser Stelle mündet der Grenzfluss March (Morava) von Norden kommend in die Donau der Mündungsbereich der March umfasst einen kleinen Anteil der Landschaft Záhorie, die geomorphologisch zum Tiefland Borská nížina und somit zum Wiener Becken zählt. The Burg Bratislava (Pressburg, 212 m n.m.) in the middle of the city marks the Beginn der zumeist nord- or linksufrigen slowakischen Donautieflands (Podunajská nížina) in der Kleinen Ungarischen Tiefebene, auf die sich der östliche und südliche Teil des Stadtgebiets erstreckt. Südlich der Hafenbrücke zweigt die Kleine Donau (Malý Dunaj) ab, ein linker Seitenarm der Donau im Donautiefland, und bildet mit der Donau die Große Schüttinsel (Žitný ostrov). Ungefähr drei Viertel des Stadtgebiets zählen zum Tiefland. [2]

Das restliche Viertel ist von bergiger Landschaft geprägt: Der Gebirgszug der Karpaten beginnt im Stadtgebiet von Bratislava mit den Thebener Karpaten, dem südwestlichsten Abschnitt der Kleinen Karpaten (Male Karpaty). Im Bereich der Pforte von Lamač (Lamačská brána) beginnen die Bösinger Karpaten, zu denen mit dem Berg Kamzík (439 m n.m.) auch eines der Wahrzeichen der Stadt gehört. Im Gebirge entspringen mehrere Bäche, von denen die Vydrica der größte und wasserreichste ist. In the north-west of the city, there are many flats on the north side of the river and in the north-west of Bach Račiansky potok mit seinen Zuflüssen über den Šúrsky canal (Šúr-Kanal) zum Einzugsgebiet der Čierna voda. [3] The city is located on a coast of 367.66 km², which is the largest town on the island of Slovakia. Der tiefste Punkt des Stadtgebiets liegt auf 126 m n.m. An der Donau bei Čunovo, die höchstgelegene Stelle ist der Gipfel des Thebener Kogels (Devínska Kobyla) auf 514 m n.m.

Entlang der Donau befinden sich mehrere Arme, die auch nach der abgeschlossenen Flussregulierung weiter bestehen. Flussabwärts sind dies Devínske rameno, Karloveské rameno, Pečnianske mŕtve rameno, Chorvátske rameno, Biskupické rameno, Jarovské rameno, Rusovské rameno one D Mošonské rameno. [4] Zwischen dem Karloveské rameno und der Donau liegt die für die Wasserversorgung Bratislavas bedeutende Insel Sihoť. [5] In the southern part of the city, the Donau is located on the Staubecken Hrušov, next to the Gabčíkovo Wasserkraftwerks Complex. [6] Nahe der Staatsgrenze zu Ungarn am Wehr Čunovo zweigt die Moson-Donau vom Hauptfluss ab.

From the Stadtgebiet befinden sich mehrere Schutzgebiete, davon zwei Landschaftsschutzgebiete (Chránené krajinné oblasti) in the Kleinen Carpathians (Male Karpaty) westlich und nördlich der Stadt und in den Donauauen (Dunajské luhy) am südlichen Rand der Stadt sowie neun kleinere Schutzgebiete wie zum Beispiel der Thebener Kogel.

Bratislava is bordered by the following municipalities: Stupava, Borinka and Svätý Jur im Norden, Ivanka pri Dunaji and Most pri Bratislave im Osten, Dunajská Lužná, Rovinka, Kalinkovo ​​und Hamuliakovo im Südosten, the Hungarian Rajka im Süden sowie im Westen die ö Pama, Kittsee, Berg, Wolfsthal and Hainburg are located on the Engelhartstetten and Marchegg north of Donau.

Climate Bearbeiten

Bratislava is located in the beautiful area and in the richness of the Continental climate with its most beautiful buildings. Die Sommer sind meist warm und trocken, die Winter kalt und feucht. Insistsamt weist Bratislava mit jährlich 667 mm nur geringe Niederschlagsmengen auf. Es verzeichnet zudem längere Trockenperioden und liegt in einer der wärmsten und trockensten Gegenden des Landes, die sich sehr gut zum Weinbau eignet. [7] Bedingt durch den vorherrschenden Nordwestwind, der im rechten Winkel die Kleinen Karpaten trifft, sind die dem Wind zugewandten Teile der Stadt im Nordwesten etwas kühler und regenreicher. [8] The average air temperature in the Stadtentrum durchschnittlich 10.7 ° C. Die Übergangszeit im Frühling und Herbst ist meist nur kurz. Devín und Devínska Nová Ves sind regelmäßig durch Überschwemmungen von Donau und March gefährdet.

Urzeit, Römerzeit bis Großmähren Bearbeiten

Die erste nachgewiesene dauerhafte Besiedlung der Gegend erfolgte in der Jungsteinzeit um 5500 v. Chr durch Angehörige der Kultur der Linearbandkeramiker. [10] Nach vielen weiteren Kulturen besiedelten im 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Die Kelten das Stadtgebiet. Der keltische Stamm der Boier gründete in der heutigen Stadtmitte um etwa 115 v. Chr. Eine befestigte Siedlung (Oppidum), wo es unter anderem eine Münzprägestätte gab. [11] Vom 1. bis 4. Jahrhundert n. Chr. Stand die Gegend südlich der Donau unter der Herrschaft der Römer (im Süden), während das eigentliche Stadtgebiet nördlich der Donau zur Germania magna gehörte. Der Donaulimes verlief durch das heutige Stadtgebiet, bei Rusovce befand sich das Kastell Gerulata. Von der Zeit gegen die Zeitenwende bis 568 n. Chr. Gehörte das Gebiet zum Reich der germanischen Quaden. Aus dem 3. Jahrhundert stammen die Überreste eines römischen Privatbads (balneum) eines germanischen Fürsten bei Dúbravka, die ungenau als rustic villa bekannt ist. [12]

Die Slawen erreichten das Gebiet um das Jahr 580, gegen Ende der Völkerwanderung, nachdem die Quaden mit den Langobarden nach Italien abgezogen waren. Als Reaktion auf die Vorherrschaft der Awaren rebellierten die sesshaft werdenden slawischen Stämme und gründeten im Jahr 623 das Reich des Samo. Dieses erste historische slawische Staatsgebilde hatte bis 658 Bestand. [13] Vom Ende des 8. Jahrhunderts bis 833 waren die Burgen von Pressburg und Theben wichtige Zentren des Fürstentums Nitra und nach 833 Großmährens. In der zweiten Hälfte des 9. Jahrhunderts war die Gegend von Bratislava Teil der karolingischen Ostmark. Die erste überlieferte urkundliche Erwähnung der Stadt (abgesehen von der neuzeitlichen auf etwa 805 bezogenen Erwähnung durch Johannes Aventinus) erfolgte im Jahr 907 im Zusammenhang mit den Schlachten von Pressburg zwischen Bajuwaren und den Magyaren als aus. [14]

Königreich Ungarn bis zum Ende des Mittelalters Bearbeiten

Die politische Entwicklung im 10. Jahrhundert ist unklar. Die meisten Historiker gehen davon aus, dass die Stadt seit etwa 907 (spätestens seit etwa 925) unter magyarischer (ungarischer) Oberherrschaft stand. Das Komitat Pressburg wurde wahrscheinlich entweder Ende des 10. Jahrhunderts oder im 11. Jahrhundert gegründet. Nach manchen Autoren gelangte die Stadt um 990 wieder zu Bayern, kam aber kurz danach als Mitgift von Gisela von Bayern bei ihrer Heirat mit dem ungarischen König Stephan I. zum ungarischen Staat. [15] In 1001, the Stadt was built with the Slowakei Kurzzeitig von Polen erobert, bis sie 1030 endgültig an das Königreich Ungarn fiel. [16]

In der Folge entwickelte sich unterhalb der Burg eine Marktsiedlung, die aufgrund ihrer strategischen Lage an der Westgrenze Ungarns wiederholt Angriffen anderer Mächte ausgesetzt war. Es kam immer wieder zu Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Ungarn und bairischen, dann österreichischen, böhmischen und römisch-deutschen Fürsten bzw. Königen, wie bei den Angriffen 1042/1052 des römisch-deutschen Königs Heinrich III. oder des böhmischen Königs Ottokar II. Přemysl in den 1270er Jahren im Rahmen der ungarisch-böhmischen Kriege. [17] Ein Mautrecht soll es bereits im 11. Jahrhundert gegeben haben, gegen 1100 fanden hier nach Kolomans Gesetzbuch sogenannte Gottesgerichte statt, die ansonsten nur für Bistumssitze reserviert waren. On the other side of the Pressburger Kapitel, the most famous city of Urkunde was built in 1236. [18] Būzāna (so die angegebene Bezeichnung) im 12. Jahrhundert eine „florierende mittelgroße Stadt mit vielen Einwohnern und genügend verschiedener Sachen und Lebensmittel zum Überleben“ und dichter Bebauung. [19]

Nach dem deutschen Sieg über die Ungarn in der Schlacht auf dem Lechfeld 955 setzte eine deutsche Besiedelung zu beiden Seiten der Donaufurt bei Pressburg ein, die nach der Jahrtausendwende von den ungarischen Königen gefördert wurde. Nach der Verwüstung des Umlands durch die Mongolen („Tataren“) im Jahr 1241 erfolgte die Wiederaufsiedelung des Marktes Pressburg durch Deutsche, die seither bis in die 1920er Jahre die Bevölkerungsmehrheit bildeten. Ein Pressburger Richter (villicus Posoniensis) namens Jakob erscheint schriftlich zum ersten Mal im Jahr 1279. [20] Am 2. Dezember 1291 verlieh der ungarische König Andreas III. das Stadtrecht, das zuerst aber nur östlich des Martinsdoms galt, während die Burg mit dem zukünftigen Schlossgrund weiterhin in königlichem Besitz verblieb. [21] Im Spätmittelalter war Pressburg eine durch Weingärten, Handwerke, Handel und Fischfang geprägte Stadt. [22] 1405 erklärte Kaiser Sigismund von Luxemburg Pressburg zur königlichen Freistadt. 1465 wurde die Universitas Istropolitana im Auftrag von Matthias Corvinus gegründet, die 1490 nach Corvinus ’Tod wieder geschlossen wurde.

16. Jahrhundert bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg Bearbeiten

Nach der Schlacht bei Mohács im Jahr 1526 mussten weite Teile des Königreichs Ungarn an die Osmanen abgetreten werden, weshalb Preßburg 1536 zur Hauptstadt des als Königliches Ungarn bezeichneten Restterritoriums erklärt wurde, das nunmehr von. Die Stadt wurde ab diesem Zeitpunkt Sitz aller wichtigen Behörden und Institutionen und ab 1543 auch Sitz des Erzbischofs von Gran.

Zwischen 1563 und 1830 war Preßburg Krönungsstadt des Königreichs Ungarn. Hier wurden elf Könige und acht Königinnen aus dem Hause Habsburg gekrönt. Gemäß alter Tradition bestanden die Krönungsfeierlichkeiten [23] aus vier Hauptteilen:

  • Salbung und Krönung des Königs mit der St.-Stephan-Krone im Dom St. Martini
  • Vollzug des Ritterschlages an ungarischen Adeligen durch den neu gekrönten König in der Franziskanerkirche. Damit wurden diese in den Stand der „Ritter des Goldnen Sporns“ erhoben.
  • Ritt auf den Krönungshügel (Schwertschläge)
  • Eid des Königs auf die Ungarische Verfassung vor dem Kloster der Barmherzigen Brüder.

Das 17. und der Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts waren außerdem gekennzeichnet durch eine Reihe von Pestepidemien, Hochwasserkatastrophen, weiteren Kämpfe mit den Osmanen, Widerstand gegen die Ausbreitung der Reformation sowie mehrere anti-habsburgische Aufstänen, 160 It was with the Frieden von Sathmar on the lower part of the Aufstands von Franz II. Rákóczi im Jahr 1711 ihr Ende fanden.

Im 18. Jahrhundert, insbesondere während der Herrschaft der Kaiserin Maria Theresia zwischen 1740 und 1780, wurde Preßburg zur größten Stadt und einer der wichtigsten Städte des gesamten Königreichs Ungarn. Die Bevölkerungszahl verdreifachte sich. Dank der Anwesenheit des ungarischen Hochadels entstanden zahlreiche neue Paläste, Klöster und Landgüter, während die Burg Sitz des königlichen Statthalters wurde. [24] Auch das kulturelle und öffentliche Leben gewann stark an Dynamik, wie zum Beispiel im Jahr 1776 mit der Eröffnung des ersten festen Theaters, des Städtischen Theaters, dem Vorgänger des heutigen Slowakischen Nationaltheaters. In dieser Zeit kam es ebenfalls zur Entwicklung des Zeitungswesens: als erste erschien die von Matthias Bel gegründete Wochenzeitung Nova Posoniensia (1721–1722). 1764 folgte die deutschsprachige Preßburger Zeitung (erschien bis 1929), 1780 die ungarischsprachige Magyar Hírmondó (bis 1788) und 1783 die slowakische Prepurské noviny (bis 1787). [25] Unter Maria Theresias Sohn Joseph II. setzte jedoch ein Bedeutungsverlust ein, insbesondere nach der Überführung der Kronjuwelen nach Wien im Jahr 1783 und der Verlegung der Verwaltung nach Ofen (heute ein Teil von Budapest). Einzig der ungarische Landtag tagte noch bis 1848 in der Stadt, dennoch wurde sie immer provinzieller. [26]

1805 unterzeichneten im Primatialpalais Diplomaten Österreichs und Frankreichs nach Napoleons Sieg in der Schlacht bei Austerlitz den Frieden von Preßburg. Nachdem sich 1809 das Kaisertum Österreich zusammen mit dem Vereinigten Königreich Großbritannien und Irland wieder gegen das Kaiserreich Frankreich stellte, belagerten und bombardierten französische Truppen die Stadt, wobei sie unter anderem die Burg Devín sprengten. Zwei Jahre später wurde bei einem Brand auch die Preßburger Burg zerstört. Als Reaktion auf die Revolution von 1848/49 verabschiedete der ungarische Landtag in Preßburg die Märzgesetze, mit denen unter anderem die Leibeigenschaft abgeschafft wurde. [27]

Die erste Eisenbahn im Königreich Ungarn war die im Jahr 1840 eröffnete (anfangs nur Pferde-) Bahn von Preßburg nach Svätý Jur (siehe Pressburg-Tyrnauer Eisenbahn). [28] Die Bahnverbindungen nach Wien und Pest kamen 1848 und 1850 hinzu. [29] Die Industrie nach 1848 und insbesondere nach 1880er Jahren entwickelte sich in der Stadt derart stark, dass Preßburg kurz vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg hinter Budapest die am zweitstärksten industrialisierte Stadt des Königreichs Ungarn war. Begünstigt wurde diese Entwicklung durch gute Eisenbahnverbindungen, die Donau als Wasserstraße und Energiequelle und freigewordene Flächen nach der abgeschlossenen Flussregulierung, in denen sich Fabriken ansiedeln konnten. Zweige wie Chemie-, Maschinenbau-, Lebensmittel, Textil- und Elektroindustrie waren am stärksten vertreten. [30] Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts wurde die Stadt umfassend modernisiert, wobei neue Institutionen entstanden. Zwischen 1891 und 1914 entstand die erste permanente Donaubrücke, die Franz-Josephs-Brücke, die erste Straßenbahnlinie ging in Betrieb und die ungarische Elisabeth-Universität wurde gegründet. Preßburg entichelte sich Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts zu einem Zentrum der slowakischen Nationalbewegung, die jedoch bis in den Ersten Weltkrieg hinein darüber diskutierte, ob Preßburg überhaupt Teil des zu beanspruchenden Landes der Slowaken sei, da sie staatsrechtlich zuhe Deutschen bewohnte Stadt war. [31] [32]

Zugehörigkeit zur Tschechoslowakei zwischen dem Ersten und dem Zweiten Weltkrieg Bearbeiten

Am Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs gelangte die Stadt durch Beschluss der Alliierten und gegen den Willen der Bevölkerung zu der 1918 neu gegründeten Tschechoslowakei. [33] Um den Verbleib in Ungarn und die Eingliederung von Engerau, das 1919 in Petržalka slowakisiert wurde (siehe Bratislavaer Brückenkopf) entwickelten sich 1919 Kämpfe zwischen den Tschechoslowakischen Legionen, den Alliierten einerseits und eungheim Verletzten führten. [34] Pressburg, das auf Slowakisch bisher Preschool hieß, wurde in Bratislava umbenannt und statt Martin oder Nitra nun zur factichen Hauptstadt des slowakischen Teils der Tschechoslowakei erklärt. Ausschlaggebend waren die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung, Größe und Lage in Bezug auf Böhmen. Viele ungarische Einwohner verließen daraufhin die Stadt. Im Jahr 1919 wurde anstelle der aufgegebenen Königlich-Ungarischen Elisabeth-Universität die Comenius-Universität gegründet.

Die erste Tschechoslowakische Republik führte eine staatlich gelenkte Slowakisierung der Stadt durch, die von der Zurückdrängung des Deutschen und Ungarischen und vom Zuzug von Slowaken und Tschechen gekennzeichnet war (Näheres dazu siehe Bevölkerung).

Infolge des Münchner Abkommens vom 30. September 1938 annektierte das Deutsche Reich die damals noch eigenständigen südlich und westlich angrenzenden Gemeinden Petržalka und Devín, die beide eine deutsche Bevölkerungsmehrheit von fast 90 Prozent hatten.

Seit Oktober 1938 war Bratislava Sitz der Regierung der autonomen Slowakei, seit 14. März 1939 Hauptstadt des Slowakischen Staates. 1940 was the University of Wirtschaft and in 1942 the "Slovak Academy of Wisconsin" was founded. Die slowakische Regierung wies die meisten der in Bratislava lebenden Juden in das Deutsche Reich aus. Von Ende November 1944 bis Ende März 1945 bestand in Engerau - wie Petržalka nun wieder hieß - ein Lager für jüdische Zwangsarbeiter. Nachdem die Stadt nach Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs lange von Luftangriffen verschont geblieben war, wurde sie am 16. Juni 1944 von amerikanischen Luftstreitkräften bombardiert 157 Tote waren die Folge. [35] Trotz des späten Versuchs des NS-Regimes, die Stadt als „Festung Pressburg“ im Frühjahr 1945 gegen sowjetische Angriffe zu befestigen, wurde sie am 4. April 1945 von der Roten Armee erobert. [36] Viele Einwohner der deutschen Volksgruppe waren vor Kriegsende von den deutschen Behörden aus der Stadt evakuiert worden, die verbliebenen Deutschen wurden nach Kriegsende aufgrund der Beneš-Dekrete aus ihrer Heimat vertrieben.

1945 bis heute Bearbeiten

1946 is the only language that can be used as the only language in the city of Bratislava in 1944, as well as in the city of Germany. Unter der Diktatur der Kommunistischen Partei, die im Februar 1948 die Macht an sich riss, entstanden ausgedehnte Plattenbausiedlungen, insbesondere in Petržalka. Nach Kriegsende wurde die Stadt architektonisch sowie wirtschaftlich beträchtlich modernisiert, manchmal auf Kosten der historisch gewachsenen Bausubstanz. Am 1. Januar 1968 wurde Bratislava formell zur Hauptstadt der Slowakei erklärt, die ab 1969 als Slowakische Sozialistische Republik bezeichnet wurde und einer der beiden Teilstaaten innerhalb des föderativen tschechoslowakischen Staates war. 1972 erfolgten weitere Eingemeindungen auf beiden Seiten der Donau, ebenso wurde die Brücke des Slowakischen Nationalaufstandes als zweite Donaubrücke eröffnet.

In 1989, Bratislava became the center of the Revolutionary War, the last day of the Communist Dictatorship. Seit dem 1. Januar 1993 ist Bratislava Hauptstadt der unabhängigen Slowakei. Seit der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts erfährt die Stadt einen wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung, der seit den 1990ern durch ausländische Investitionen gefördert wird. Einerseits kommt es zum Ausbau von Dienstleistungen, andererseits büßte die Bedeutung der Industrie in der Stadtwirtschaft ein. [37]

Im Zuge des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa in May / June 2013 on the Donau am Nachmittag of 6. June on the Scheitelpunkt (Record time: 10.34 Meter) [38]

Namen Bearbeiten

Nach der Bildung der ersten Tschechoslowakischen Republik erhielt die Stadt im Jahre 1919 den amtlichen slowakischen Namen Bratislava. [39] Der deutsche Name Pressburg bzw. nach alter Rechtschreibung Preßburg existiert parallel dazu. In der deutschen und der österreichischen Diplomatie wird die Stadt amtlich Pressburg bezeichnet. [40] [41]

Pressburg Bearbeiten

These are the first cities in the city of Brezalauspurc in Salzburger Annalen (Annales Juvavenses maximi) im Zusammenhang mit der Schlacht von Pressburg im Jahr 907 zwischen Bayern und Magyaren unweit der heute Bratislava genannten Burg. Gemeint dürfte ahd. the Burg eines Brezeslaus sein. Ende des 9. Jahrhunderts errichtete auf dem Schlossberg ein karolingischer Grenzgraf (confinii comes), der Kroate Brazlav aus Sissak, hier an der Grenze des fränkischen Reiches eine Wehranlage, deren Name dann auf den darunterliegenden Markt überging [42] [43] - e , die von slowakischen Slawisten inzwischen geteilt wird. [44] Gegen Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts tauchten Münzfunde aus der Zeit um 1000 mit der Inschrift „Preslav (v) a Civitas“ auf. [45]

Der deutsche Name entwickelte sich weiter zu Pressburg (bzw. Pressburg) und davon abgeleitet die slowakische Bezeichnung Prešporok / Prešpurek. Bis 1919 verwendeten die meisten englischsprachigen Autoren die Bezeichnung Pressburg, [46] während im französischen Sprachraum Presbourg üblich war. Tschechisch hießen Burg und Stadt Prešpurk.

Pozsony Bearbeiten

Für die Herkunft des ungarischen Namens Pozsony (in dieser Form erstmals 1773 nachgewiesen) gibt es unterschiedliche Thesen: Laut Eberhard Kranzmayer stammt der Name von einem Franken oder Baiern namens Boso oder Puoso, der in frühkarolingischer Zeit an der Furt über die Donau unter dem Burgberg ein Wehrdorf. Von diesem Bosendorf berichtete später Otto von Freising als castra Bosani, das in Urkunden latinisiert auch 1146 und 1277 als Bosonium sowie 1271 als Bozonium erscheint. [47] Davon has not yet submitted any attachments in any form without any delay. Požúň und das lateinische Posonium. Aventinus machte daraus ein Pisonium und schrieb die Gründung einem legendären römischen Fürsten Piso zu. Die jüngere Burg des karolingischen Grenzgrafen Brazlav auf dem Burgberg und die demnach ältere Zivilsiedlung des fränkischen oder bairischen Boso entstanden zeitlich unabhängig voneinander, was erklärt warum später von den Deutschen und Ungarn zwar Burg und Ort jeweach gtert. Von den Deutschen wurde der Burgname auf den Markt und von den Ungarn der Marktname auf die Burg übertragen.

Jan Stanislav glaubt, den Namen von seinem slowakischen Bozan ableiten zu können, der im 11. Jahrhundert Burgherr in Preßburg gewesen sein soll, historisch aber nicht greifbar ist (* Božänjь). [48] ​​Da der Personenname im Slowakischen nicht vorkommt, müsste es sich um einen Südslawen gehandelt haben. Besonders in der Renaissance wurden in Gelehrtenkreisen die latinisierte Form Posonium und die gräzisierte Form Istropolis (Donaustadt) gebräuchlich. Die Form Istropolis stammt aus der Christianisierungszeit im 9. Jahrhundert (Byzanz).

Bratislava Bearbeiten

Johannes Aventinus wrote in 16. Jahrhundert, dass die Stadt Anfang des 9. Jahrhunderts vom mährischen Fabelfürsten Vratislav (Wratislaus) aus einer römischen Festung wieder erbaut worden sei und nach diesem Fürsten Vratislaburgium / Vratissolaoburlum / Wrat. Er nennt auch den lateinischen Namen Pisonium. Die Verlässlichkeit dieser Angaben wird heute in Abrede gestellt. Pressburg war is not a romantic festival and it is a very important holiday in Vratislav which is a very important place. Ein böhmischer Herzog Vratislav gründete zwar zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt Breslau in Schlesien (daher der Name), steht aber in keinem Zusammenhang mit Pressburg.

Einige slowakische Autoren verwendeten in den 1830er Jahren in Anlehnung an die irrigen Angaben des Aventinus die Form „(Tatranská) Vratislava“ (z. B. Ján Kollár, 1830). Bratislava, der heutige Stadtname, hat wohl seinen Ursprung im Jahr 1837, als der Wissenschaftler Pavel Jozef Šafárik (in: Slovanské starožitnosti, 1837) in der Form Brecisburg (1042) die slowakische Form * Bracislaw / * Brecislaw sah und irrtümlich an vom böhmischen König Břetislav gegründet worden sei. Danach verwendeten Anhänger der slowakischen Nationalbewegung auf der Suche nach einem „slawischeren“ Namen und zur Ablegung der historischen deutschen und ungarischen Ortsnamen die Formen Břetislav (Jan Kollár, 1838), Břetislava (Jan Kollár, Ľudovít (Martin), 1838). Nach der Einführung der neuen Sprachnorm tauchte 1843 die Variante Braťislava (nad Dunajom) (Ján Francisci-Rimavský) auf, [49] wobei in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts auch wieder die Formen Břetislav und andere Varianten verwendet wurden. Diese Namen blieben jedoch auf kleine Zirkel der slowakischen Nationalbewegung beschränkt. Sie hatten weder amtliche Bedeutung noch fanden sie Eingang in den allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch der Slowaken, die am historischen slowakischen Namen Prešporok und entsprechende Varianten festhielten.

Nach Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs kam für kurze Zeit die Bezeichnung Wilsonovo mesto oder Wilsonovo (Wilson-Stadt) auf, nach dem amerikanischen Präsidenten Woodrow Wilson (nach manchen Quellen verwendeten diesen Namen jedoch ausschließlich tschechoslowakische Legionen in Italien Anfang 1919 auf militärischen Karten). Hintergrund war die Durchsetzung nationalslowakischer Ansprüche auf Pressburg auf der Friedenskonferenz in Paris mit Hilfe eines slawischklingenden Ortsnamens, da man durch den deutschen und ungarischen Ortsnamen die Glaubwürdigkeit slowakischer Forderungen gefährdet sah. Mit Prešporok hatten sich die Slowaken nämlich eine Stadt zur Kapitale ihres Landesteils erwählt, in der sie selbst deutlich in der Minderheit waren und in der derangeangebende Teil der mehrheitlich deutsch- und ungarischsprachigen Bevölkerung die Existenz neble. Am 22. Februar 1919 legte die tschechoslowakische Regierung den Kunstnamen Bratislava amtlich fest, änderte dies jedoch am 16. March 1919 in Bratislava, da die Endung -av tschechisch sei. [50] Die Verlautbarung, mit der „Bratislava“ als Name rechtswirksam wurde, erfolgte am 27. März 1919 in einem Amtsblatt, das selbst noch den Namen „Prešporok“ als Ortsangabe auf der Titelseite hatte. [51] Gleichzeitig wurde der neue Name für „unübersetzbar“ erklärt und der Gebrauch der historischen Namen unter Strafe gestellt. [32] [39]

Heutige Namenssituation Bearbeiten

Die Bezeichnung der Stadt in anderen Sprachen ist heute kein großes Thema mehr in der Slowakei. Allerdings wird der 1919 eingeführte Kunstname Bratislava von slowakischen Stellen auch in fremdsprachigen Publikationen ausschließlich verwendet und nicht die in verschiedenen Sprachen vorhandenen historischen Exonyme. In der österreichischen Presse gerät die Bezeichnung Pressburg zunehmend und in den bundesdeutschen Medien mittlerweile fast völlig in den Hintergrund. Beide Botschaften in der Stadt firmieren aber weiterhin unter dem deutschen Namen Pressburg. [52] [53] Im Gegensatz dazu verwenden die ungarische Presse und der Staat Ungarn auch in offiziellen Dokumenten weiterhin konsequent den ungarischen Namen Pozsony, which is part of Schildern auf Ungarns Straßen die Doppelbezeichnung Pozsony-Bratislava zu lesen ist. [54]

In der Stadt selbst sind die historischen Namen durchaus präsent, sowohl Firmen, vor allem im Gastronomie- und Tourismusbereich, wie auch kulturelle Institutionen oder Ensembles nutzen sie gern als localeshistorisches Kolorit. Besonders häufig sind Benennungen mit Bezug auf Preschool one D Pressburg, die Bezeichnung Pozsony Dagegen findet sich kaum, ist jedoch noch vereinzelt auf Kanaldeckeln aus der Vorkriegszeit zu lesen. Auch der Name Wilsonovo / Wilsonstadt wurde gelegentlich referenziert, so bspw. in einer Erzählung des Schriftstellers Michal Hvorecký und der Benennung des von ihm mitgegründeten Wilsonic-Festivals. [55]

Ein gebräuchlicher umgangssprachlicher Name für die Stadt ist Blue, eine Verkürzung von Bratislava, zugleich aber auch der Name eines westslowakischen Flusses und dementsprechende mehr abwertende Bezeichnung für die Einwohner Blaváci, anstelle des schriftsprachlichen Demonyms Bratislava. [56]


Hogyan lett Pozsonyból Bratislava?

The Pozsonyban történt 1919-es eseményekről emlékezik meg a Pozsonyi Kifli Polgári Társulás rendhagyó „pop-up” kiállítása az óvárosi Komenský tèren (az egykori Csáky tér), ahol 30 háromnyelvű information. A kiállítás október 6-ig tekinthetők meg.

A Csehszlovák Köztársaság kikiáltásakor egyáltalán nem volt egyértelmű, hogy Pozsony a formálódó új államhoz tartozhat, s azon belül a szlovákiai rész központjává válik. Ahogyan az sem volt biztos, hogy Bratislavának fogják hívni (a város korábbi szlovák neve Prešporok vagy Požúň volt).

Pozsonyt 1918 octébere és 1919 márciusa között Wilsonvárosnak (Wilsonovo mesto, Wilsonstadt) hívták T. W. Wilson amerikai elnök után. A helyiek abban bíztak, hogy a népek önrendelkezéséről szóló wilsoni elv alapján eldönthetik majd, milyen állami keretek között képzelik el a jövőjüket.

El szlovák politikai elit akkoriban elég megosztott volt a város Csehszlovákián belüli szerepét illetően. Egy részük nem a német-magyar többségű Pozsonyt, hanem inkább Besztercebányát vagy Túrocszentmártont látta volna szívesen a szlovákiai rész fővárosaként. Végül a pragmatikus érvek győzedelmeskedtek: „Csehszlovákiának szüksége van a Dunára”- mondta akkoriban T. G. Masaryk, Csehszlovákia első köztársasági elnöke.

Csehszlovák legionáriusok 1919. január 1-jén foglalták el Pozsonyt. Az új karhatalom, eblhe ellenségesen viszonyult az akkori lakosság, mindinkább megerősítette pozícióját a városban.

Ennek egyfajta kicsúcsosodásai voltak azok a tragikus események, mellek „véres szerda”, vagy „pozsonyi sortűz” néven lettek ismertek. 1919. February 12-en csehszlovák legionáriusok magyarok és németek csoportjába lőttek, akik többek között a megszállás ellen is tüntettek aznap a Régi Vásárcsarnok előtt (ma Stará tržnica). A sortűz következtében többen életüket vesztették, és számos ember megsérült.

A kiállítás gerincét történelmi források, a régi pozsonyiak és a városba bevonuló csehszlovák legionáriusok korabeli visszaemlékezései alkotják.

Branislav Varsik szlovák történész egyik művében például arról emlékezik meg, hogy Pozsonyban, főleg a munkások körében, sok volt a szlovák származású lakos, ám csak csekély nemzettudattk rendelk.

Szlovák vérfrissítésre volt szükség. Még az új csehszlovák tisztségviselők és alkalmazottak is jórészt csehek voltak, akárcsak reálgimnáziumunk tanarai”- írja Varsik. Eközben özönlöttek Pozsonyba az új szlovák és cseh lakosok, emiatt nagy lakáshiány alakult ki a városban.

Feltűnik Samuel Zoch főispán személye is, aki Pozsony és Pozsony megye 1919. január 1-jén hivatalba lépett zsupánja és kormánybiztosa volt.

Zoch örömét fejezi ki Csehszlovákia megalakulásával kapcsolatban: „A szlovák nép szabadsága és Csehszlovák Köztársaságunk léte immár valóság. Régi vágyunk megvalósult, és akik évszázadokon át el voltak választva egymástól, újfent egy államban egyesültek. A testvérek egymásra találtak, és az előrenyomuló csehszlovák hadsereg minden szlovákot felszabadít az anyenéves iga alól ”.

Peéry (Limbacher) Rezső író és publicista kilencéves kisgyerekként élte meg az 1919. januárjában Pozsonyba bevonuló csehszlovák fegyveres csapatokat:

Így kezdődött az a gigantikus műtét, onen a régi ország szlovákok lakta északi területeit egy tekintélyes terjedelmű és mélységű magyar etnikai sávval egyetemben kihasította Magyarország területébenclá cálállé, c. Ezzel a beavatkozással hozták létre az első világháború győztes hatalmai a Csehszlovák Köztársaságot”- emékezik vissza Peéry (Limbacher) Rezső A végzet bábjátéka c. Munkájában.

A korabeli Bratislavský denník hasábjain (1921) egy csehszlovák legionárius írja meg benyomásait Pozsonyról, mellek számára egyáltalán nem voltak pozitívak.

… Mindenféle nyelven karattyolnak, csak épp államnyelven nem. Az utcatáblák ugyan helyenként már háromnyelvűek, de nem mindenütt… Es vajon milyen nyelven köszöntik a boltba vagy vendéglőbe belépőt? Egy külföldi bizonnyal azzal az érzéssel távozik Pozsonyból, hogy a város egyenlőre csupán Pestnek vagy Bécsnek afféle fiókja”- írja a csehszlovák legionárius, aki szerint még mindig sok ember a régi szellemben él Pozsonyban. Habár nem mondják ki nyilvánosan, de lépten-nyomon ez az érzése az embernek - jegyzi meg.


The art of baking Bratislava rolls

It is enough to follow the aroma, easily leading all gourmands into the bakery, where skilled bakers prepare traditional Bratislava rolls at the speed of lightning. The aroma of freshly baked rolls can be smelt from the crossroads of Riazanská and Kukučínová street. The bakery itself is a few dozen meters away on Riazanská Street.

“We began baking Bratislava rolls on our own accord,” explained Ján Šimunek, the owner of the family company FantasticCo, in regards to why he and his wife decided to set up their own bakery years ago. “We love the rolls and at that time, around 2013, it was a problem to find good Bratislava rolls in the city. So we decided to bake them ourselves. ”

Šimunek originally worked in the military air force and only after finishing this chapter of his life did he learn the art of baking. His teacher was the baker Vojtech Szemes, who deserves the greatest credit for the successful renewal of the tradition of Bratislava rolls. As the former head of the Guild of Bakers and Confectioners of Western Slovakia, he brought back to life this traditional Bratislava pastry and fought five years for it to be recognized by the EU as a traditional specialty. The rolls received the Traditional Specialties Guaranteed Trademark (TGS) in 2012.

History of rolls

The first written mention of the rolls baked in Pressburg, today’s Bratislava, is from the guild book of bakers and dates back to 1599. It reads that on Easter Monday, it was decided that everyone who bakes pretzels should bake the rolls. At the end of the 19th century, there where several bakers in the city baking rolls, which at that time were known as Pozsonyi Kifli in Hungarian or Pressburger Beigel in German. Their twilight years were predetermined by WWII. After the communists took over in Slovakia, the rolls became one of symbols of the bourgeois era. The famous bakeries were nationalized and the rolls almost disappeared from cafes and pastry shops. The tradition was restored only in the late 1990s.

At FantastiCo, they created a link to the tradition disrupted for many years during the communist regime. They searched for original recipes and practices and tried to bring them back.

“Basically, it’s a very simple recipe, but it’s not easy to make good rolls,” said Šimunek. "In Bratislava, therefore, there are very few producers baking the original Bratislava rolls."

He estimates that approximately 200 bakeries prepare this traditional specialty in the Bratislava region but only around five of them bake real quality Bratislava rolls.


Bakery-pastry products for the holidays

Bakeries and pastry shops attach special importance to diversifying the assortments of products with new shapes and unique assortments, in order to be to the taste of as many customers as possible. By enrolling in this course you can learn, in just two days, the entire technological manufacturing process necessary to obtain several products specific to the winter holidays, such as: several types of cakes, pastries with and without fillings, different assortments of bread.

The course responds to the tendency of consumers to move towards artisanal bakery and pastry products.

Using various combinations of ingredients, including wholemeal flours or seeds, students will practice dozens of ways to process, shape and bake doughs, aiming to diversify assortments. Students will learn by experimenting how to dose raw materials, what is the order of the stages of dough processing, how it behaves in various environments, what conditions of humidity and temperature require certain types of dough, how the fermentation process takes place, what types of baking exist and what tricks can be applied to fix certain mistakes in the baking process.

The following recipes will be prepared during the course:

Potatoes with potatoes
Pogacele with jumari
Sweet puff pastry
Puff pastry salted
Horn of Bratislava “Pozsonyi”
Cozonac Baigli
Corn with milk
Cheese horn
Corn Altdorfi (Baton Sandvici)
Rolls
"Six-sheet" cake
Bread with craft potatoes
Toasted bread
Cabbage bread
Rustic baguette
White bread
Rye bread


Bratislava (Pozsonyi kifli) croissants - Recipes

(1) Text with EEA relevance.

COMMUNICATIONS FROM THE INSTITUTIONS, BODIES, OFFICES AND AGENCIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

Official Journal of the European Union

Non-opposition to a notified concentration

(Case M.8720 - Jones Lang LaSalle / intu Properties / The Chapelfield Partnership)

(Text with EEA relevance)

On 11 January 2018, the Commission decided not to oppose the above notified concentration and to declare it compatible with the internal market. This Decision is based on Article 6 (1) (b) of Regulation (EC) No 1234/2007. Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004. The full text of the decision is available only in English and will be made public after any business secrets it may contain have been removed. Will be available:

on the website of the Commission's Directorate-General for Competition, in the section on concentrations (http://ec.europa.eu/competition/mergers/cases/). This website provides various facilities to identify individual merger decisions, including company, case number, date and sectoral indexes.

in electronic form on the EUR-Lex website (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html?locale=ro), under document number 32018M8720. EUR-Lex allows online access to European legislation.

INFORMATION FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION INSTITUTIONS, BODIES, OFFICES AND AGENCIES

Official Journal of the European Union

Euro exchange rate (1)

(1) Source: reference exchange rate published by the European Central Bank.

Official Journal of the European Union

establishing an expert group on compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

Article 191 of the Treaty entrusts the Union and the Member States with the task of ensuring that the Union's environmental policy contributes to the conservation, protection and improvement of the quality of the environment and aims at a high level of protection.

In order to ensure better enforcement and compliance with Union environmental law, in accordance with the Commission Communication entitled "EU actions to improve compliance with environmental law and environmental governance" (1), the Commission should draw on the expertise of specialists. within an advisory body.

It is therefore necessary to set up a group of experts on compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance and to set out its tasks and structure.

The Group should assist in the development of guidance documents on good practice in ensuring compliance with environmental legislation, other information documents, including on professional skills and knowledge, and the assessment of national systems, as well as the development of awareness-raising and awareness-raising activities. information in the field of ensuring compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance. At the same time, the group should help coordinate and monitor the implementation of actions aimed at improving compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance, and assist the Commission in preparing policy initiatives and legislative proposals on broader governance issues. medium.

The group should be composed of experts from EU Member States, as well as representatives of existing pan-European professional networks addressing issues related to ensuring compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance.

Rules should be laid down for the disclosure of information by members of the group.

Personal data should be processed in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 882/2004. Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council (2),

The group of experts on compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance is established. The group will be called the "Forum on compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance".

assist the Commission in coordinating and monitoring the implementation of actions aimed at improving compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance, as well as with the development of legislative proposals or policy initiatives in the field of compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance, including regarding:

promoting compliance with, monitoring and ensuring compliance with environmental legislation (ensuring compliance)

access to justice in environmental matters

access to environmental information

any other issue related to governance

establish cooperation and coordination between the Commission, the Member States and existing pan-European professional networks (3) on matters relating to the implementation of Union legislation, programs and environmental policies

encourage the exchange of experience and good practice in the field of compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance.

The Commission may consult the group on any matter relating to the implementation of actions relating to compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance, including the implementation of actions aimed at improving compliance with environmental legislation and environmental governance (4), reviewing them and identifying new actions after 2019.

1. Members shall be the authorities of the Member States and other public bodies.

2. In particular, the following public entities shall be members of the group:

European Union network for the implementation and enforcement of environmental legislation

European Network of Environmental Prosecutors

EU Environmental Judges Forum

European network of directors of environmental protection agencies

European Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions

3. The authorities of the Member States and other public bodies shall appoint their representatives and shall be responsible for providing their experts with a high level of expertise.

4. Members who are no longer in a position to contribute effectively to the deliberations of the group of experts who, in the opinion of the competent Commission service, do not fulfill the conditions laid down in Article 339 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union or who resign invited to attend group meetings and may be replaced for the remainder of their term of office.

The group is chaired by a representative of the Commission's Directorate-General for the Environment ("DG ENV").

1. The group shall act at the request of DG ENV in accordance with the relevant horizontal rules of the Commission applicable to expert groups ('horizontal rules') (5).

2. The meetings of the group shall in principle take place at the premises of the Commission.

3. DG ENV shall provide secretarial services. Officials from other Commission services who are interested in their activities may attend the meetings of the group and its sub-groups.

4. In agreement with DG ENV, the group may decide, by a simple majority of its members, that the deliberations be made public.

5. The minutes of the discussions on each item on the agenda and the opinions delivered by the group shall be conclusive and complete. The minutes shall be drawn up by the secretariat, under the responsibility of the President.

6. The group shall adopt its opinions, recommendations and reports by consensus. In the event of a vote, the result of the vote shall be decided by a simple majority of members. Members who voted against have the right to attach to the opinions, recommendations or reports of the group a document summarizing the arguments on which their position is based.

1. DG ENV may set up sub-groups for the purpose of examining specific matters on the basis of the mandate defined by DG ENV. The subgroups operate in accordance with the horizontal rules and report to the group. Once they have fulfilled their mandate, the subgroups are dissolved.

2. Members of sub-groups who are not members of the group shall be selected by a public call for applications in accordance with the horizontal rules (6).

DG ENV may invite experts with expertise on a specific topic on the agenda to participate, ad hoc, in the activities of the group or sub-groups.

1. Natural persons, organizations or other public entities other than those listed in Article 4 may be granted observer status, in accordance with the horizontal rules, on the basis of a direct invitation.

2. Public organizations or entities which have received observer status shall designate their representatives.

3. Observers and their representatives may be authorized by the Chair to participate in the discussions of the group and to provide expertise. However, they do not have the right to vote and do not participate in the formulation of the group's recommendations or opinions.

On a proposal and with the agreement of DG ENV, the group shall adopt its rules of procedure by a simple majority of its members, on the basis of the standard rules of procedure for expert groups, in accordance with the horizontal rules (7).

Professional secrecy and management of classified information

The members of the group and their representatives, as well as the invited experts and observers, shall comply with the obligations of professional secrecy, which, under the Treaties and their implementing rules, apply to all members of the institutions and their staff and to the Commission's security rules. Union classified information provided for in Commission Decisions (EU, Euratom) 2015/443 (8) and (EU, Euratom) 2015/444 (9). If these obligations are not complied with, the Commission may take all necessary measures.

1. The group and its sub-groups shall be entered in the Register of Expert Groups and other similar bodies of the Commission (hereinafter referred to as the "Register of Expert Groups").

2. With regard to the composition of the group, the following data shall be published in the register of expert groups:

the name of the authorities of the Member States

the name of other public entities

3. All relevant documents, including agendas, minutes and participants' contributions, shall be published either in the register of expert groups or through a link in the register to a specialized website containing that information. Access to specialized websites is not subject to user registration or other restrictions. In particular, the agenda and other relevant reference documents shall be published in good time before the meeting and the minutes shall be published without delay after the meeting. Exceptions to publication shall be provided only if it is considered that disclosure of a document could affect the protection of a public or private interest as defined in Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No 1234/2007. Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council (10).

Meeting expenses

1. Participants in the activities of the group and sub-groups shall not be remunerated for the services provided.

2. Travel and subsistence expenses for participants in the activities of the group and sub-groups shall be reimbursed by the Commission. Reimbursement shall be made in accordance with the provisions in force within the Commission and within the limits of the available appropriations allocated to the Commission services in the framework of the annual resource allocation procedure.

Done at Brussels, 18 January 2018.

(2) Regulation (EC) No Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2000 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Community institutions and bodies and on the free movement of such data (OJ L 8, 12.1.2001, p. 1). ).

(3) European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL), EU Environmental Judges Forum (EUFJE), European Network of Environmental Prosecutors (ENPE), EnviCrimeNet, European Network of Directors of Environmental Protection Agencies ( NEPA) and the European Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (EUROSAI).

(5) Commission Decision of 30 May 2016 establishing horizontal rules on the establishment and operation of Commission expert groups, C (2016) 3301, Article 13 (1).

(6) C (2016) 3301, Articles 10 and 14 (2).

(8) Commission Decision (EU, Euratom) 2015/443 of 13 March 2015 on security within the Commission (OJ L 72, 17.3.2015, p. 41).

(9) Commission Decision (EU, Euratom) 2015/444 of 13 March 2015 on security rules for the protection of EU classified information (OJ L 72, 17.3.2015, p. 53).

(10) Regulation (EC) No Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents (OJ L 145, 31.5.2001, p. 43).

Official Journal of the European Union

Commission communication in the framework of the implementation of the Regulation (EU) no. Regulation (EC) No 305/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down harmonized conditions for the marketing of construction products and repealing Council Directive 89/106 / EEC

[Publication of references of European Assessment Documents in accordance with Article 22 of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 305/2011]

(Text with EEA relevance)

The provisions of Regulation (EU) no. 305/2011 prevails over any conflicting provisions in the European evaluation documents

Reference number and title of the European Assessment Document

Reference number and title of the European assessment document replaced

Prefabricated concrete composite wall with point connectors

High performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) prefabricated elements for balconies

Lightweight panel, made of cement mortar and granular EPS, reinforced with fiberglass mesh and metal profiles

Buried multi-axis hinge assemblies

Glazing system without vertical profiles for balconies (and terraces)

Roof, floor, wall and ceiling access hatches can also be used as fire exits / with or without fire resistance

Interior pedestrian doors, steel, with one or two wings, fire-resistant and / or smoke-controlled

Liquid roofing waterproofing based on siloxane

Membrane used as a substrate for roofs

Thermal and / or acoustic insulation products, made from vegetable or animal fibers

Thermal insulation products for buildings, with thermo-reflective components

Vacuum insulation panels (VIP) with protective layer applied at the factory

Fiberglass fabric for reinforcing cement-based plasters

Composite plates with low lambda coefficient, made of mineral wool fibers and airgel additives

Rubber fiber mat for impact noise insulation

Thermal and / or soundproofing boards based on expanded polystyrene and cement

Composite systems for exterior thermal insulation, intended for buildings with wooden frame

Thermal and / or soundproofing plates and products, obtained by molding expanded polylactic acid

Thermal and / or sound-insulating products of vegetable fibers, fillers, manufactured in situ

Kits for composite exterior thermal insulation system (ETICS), with plates as thermal insulation product and discontinuous coating as exterior surface

Prefabricated thermal and acoustic insulation of polyester fibers

Product for thermal and / or acoustic insulation made in situ consisting of expanded granulated cork

Insulation made of expanded or mixed cork granules

Thermal and / or acoustic filling insulation, obtained from fibers of animal origin, made in situ

Thermal and / or sound insulation based on expanded polystyrene

Silicone-based, fiber-reinforced airgel thermal insulation

Extruded polystyrene boards as a layer of resistance and / or thermal insulation on the outside of the waterproofing

Glass wool boards with resistance and thermal insulation function in addition to waterproofing

Spherical and cylindrical bearing, with special sliding material, obtained from fluoropolymer

Spherical and cylindrical bearings with sliding surface made of PTFE filled with solid lubricant and reinforced with fibers

Chimney set with burnt clay / ceramic lining with T400 classification (minimum) N1 W3 Gxx

Chimney set with burnt clay / ceramic lining and specific exterior wall, with classification T400 (minimum) N1 W3 Gxx

Chimney set with burnt clay / ceramic filling with classification T400 (minimum) N1 / P1 W3 Gxx, with different types of exterior walls and the possibility of changing them

Gypsum boards for load-bearing applications

Fiberglass sealing tape for drywall

Unconsolidated hexagonal geogrid for stabilization of free granular layers by aggregate binding

Prefabricated compressed mineral wool boards with organic or inorganic finish and specific fastening system

Vertical glazed surface, supported punctually

Ventilated facade cladding kits with light tiles fixed to the subframe, with plaster applied in situ, with or without thermal insulation

Agglomerated stone facade cladding systems

Kit consisting of substructures and fasteners for fastening cladding elements and facade elements

Insulating glazing element with structural sealing and point fixing

Ventilated facade exterior cladding kit, consisting of honeycomb metal panel and fixing accessories

Retro-reflective foil with microprismatic structure

Steel lighting poles

Flexible expansion joints for road bridges, with flexible filling based on synthetic polymeric binder

Solid wood boards - boards fixed with dowels used as a structural element in buildings

Solid wood board used as a structural element in buildings

Glued laminated timber from hardwood - veneered beech wood plywood for structures

Prefabricated wooden elements, mechanically joined elements of planks, used for structural elements in buildings

Structural wood classified by strength - beams with rectangular section with chamfered edges of chestnut wood

Solid wood element - structural element for buildings, consisting of planks joined in a dovetail

Resin-covered dowel joints

Monolithic or laminated logs for walls and beams

Nails and screws for fixing boards in wooden structures

Modular construction system

Wood-concrete composite tiles, with fixing dowels

Wooden construction screws

Structural wood classified by strength - steamed timber, rectangular in section, whether or not joined in dovetail, of softwood

Structural wood classified by strength - rectangular beams with beveled softwood edges

Glued laminated timber, obtained from steam-treated board, with a rectangular cross section - soft essence

Calcium sulfoaluminate cement

Calcium aluminate refractory cement

High strength cement

Quick-setting cement based on calcium sulfoaluminate, resistant to sulphates

Portland cement puzzolanic for tropical climate

CEM III / A blast furnace cement with sulfate resistance (SR) and, optionally, low real alkali (LA) and / or low hydration heat (LH)

Post-tensioning kits for prestressed structures

Special fillers for post-tensioning kits

Floor drain - with interchangeable mechanical shutter

Flexible connections for drainage and sewer pipes with or without pressure

Dry floating floor system, with interlocking prefabricated elements, made of ceramic tiles and rubber mats

Prefabricated steel or stainless steel cables with end connectors

Steel structural piles with tubular sections and rigid joints

Spacer systems for metal ventilated roofs and facades

Stone joints and soles for concrete piles

Hot rolled products and structural elements of steel grades Q235B, Q235D, Q345B and Q345D

Hexagonal metal gabions and boxes

Gabions and gabion mattresses of welded mesh

Long products of special quality construction steels, weldable with fine granulation obtained by thermomechanical rolling

Steel wire mesh systems for reinforced filling

Prefabricated tie rod systems with special connectors

Screw connector fixed with nails

Roofs and facades with hidden fasteners

Micropile system - Tube system for self-drilling micropiles - Seamless steel pipe tubes

Gabions and boxes made of galvanized hexagonal mesh

Stacks of pipes made of ductile iron

Gabion mesh boxes, mattresses and bags made of twisted wire mesh with regular hexagonal meshes covered with zinc and / or with organic coating + zinc

Fasteners with metal clips

Modular element for construction

Slate slabs for polypropylene roofing, limestone and fillers

Copper alloy sheet and strip, fully supported, for roofs, exterior cladding and interior linings

Edge profiles for terraces and balconies

Flat plastic plates for fully supported discontinuous roofs and exterior cladding

Self-supporting ridge skylight

Low pressure, decentralized ventilation unit with high energy efficiency, alternating flow and heat recovery

Polycarbonate snow cutters for roofs

Structural horizontal glazing in the console (structural glass ceiling / canopy)

Plastic tile, flat or profiled (patterned), of recycled materials, for discontinuous roofs, fully supported

Mesh panels with annular mesh

Joined steel cable panels

Twisted double wire mesh, whether or not reinforced with cables

Road marking products

Additives for the production of asphalt mixtures - bituminous granules obtained by recycling bituminous roofing felt

Flexible front systems for slope stabilization and rock protection

Profiles and load-bearing plates for construction, of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP / fiberglass-reinforced composites)

Alkali-resistant zirconium glass fibers for use in concrete

Polymeric addition for concrete

Type I additive - for concrete, mortar and mortar screed - Aqueous solution

Pre-assembled sewer unit for drainage or infiltration

Pipeline system for transporting cold and hot water inside buildings

Laminated sheet for waterproofing construction joints and joints for controlling concrete cracks

Expandable sealing tape, bentonite-based, for waterproof concrete construction cord

Extensible structural bolt systems for blind assembly

Adjustable screws for concrete

Cast anchor with internal threaded base

Clamping screws for sandwich panels

Lifting device

Injection metal anchors for masonry

Systems for fixing corrugated sheet metal or metal bar gratings

Clamp system with high slip resistance

Multi-purpose mechanically operated fasteners in concrete for non-structural applications

Steel plate with fixing anchors

Shot bolt for fixing the sheet and thin steel elements

Fastening system with self-adjusting clamps

Plastic anchors, new or recycled material, for fixing composite thermal insulation systems to the outside with plaster

Mechanical fasteners used in concrete

Pointed fastening element, made of fiberglass-reinforced polymer, for sandwich walls

Chemical fasteners used in concrete

Mounting rail, hot rolled

Shot bolt for fixing ETICS in concrete

Steel mesh panels, with built-in thermal insulation, for entire structures

Prefabricated stair treads

Flexible systems for stopping detritus flows and shallow landslides / open-slope detritus flows

Infrastructure sets for heated buildings

Lightweight, steel / wood roof elements

Fire-retardant service pipe kit, consisting of prefabricated fittings (made of mechanically primed sheet steel) and related accessories

Intumescent products to prevent the spread of fire and fire protection

Fire-retardant water separator with intumescent fire-retardant gasket (combined with a stainless steel floor drain)

Plasters and application kits plasters for fire retardant applications

Seals for linear joints and expansion joints

Fire protection products and kits based on tiles, semi-rigid panels and flexible panels

Reactive coatings for protection of steel elements against fire

European Assessment Documents (EADs) are adopted by the European Organization for Technical Approvals (EOTA) in English. The European Commission is not responsible for the correctness of the titles that have been provided by EOTA for publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

The publication of references of European Assessment Documents in the Official Journal of the European Union does not imply that European Assessment Documents are available in all official languages ​​of the European Union.

The European Organization for Technical Approvals (http://www.eota.eu) makes the European assessment document available online, in accordance with the provisions of point 8 of Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. 305/2011.

This list replaces all previous lists published in the Official Journal of the European Union. The European Commission shall ensure that this list is kept up to date.

PROCEDURES RELATING TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMPETITION POLICY

Official Journal of the European Union

Prior notification of a concentration

(Case M.8774 - Ivanhoe Cambridge / QuadReal Property Group / JV)

Case that may be subject to the simplified procedure

(Text with EEA relevance)

On 10 January 2018, the European Commission received, pursuant to Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No. Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 (1), a notification of a proposed concentration.

The notification concerns the following undertakings:

QuadReal Property Group (Canada)

Logos India Logistics Venture Pte Ltd (“JV”, Singapore).

Ivanhoe Cambridge and QuadReal Property Group acquire joint control of the JV within the meaning of Article 3 (1) (b) and Article 3 (4) of the Merger Regulation.

Concentration is achieved through the purchase of shares.

The economic activities of the undertakings concerned are:

- in the case of Ivanhoe Cambridge: global real estate investor and subsidiary of the Canadian fund manager Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec

- in the case of QuadReal Property: global real estate investor and subsidiary of British Columbia Investment Management Corporation

- in the case of JV: holding company investing in the Indian real estate sector.

Following a preliminary examination, the European Commission finds that the notified transaction could be covered by the Merger Regulation. However, no final decision is taken in this regard.

In accordance with the Commission Notice on a simplified procedure for the analysis of certain concentrations under Regulation (EC) No. 139/2004 of the Council (2), it should be specified that this case can be treated according to the procedure provided in the communication.

The European Commission invites interested third parties to submit their possible observations on the proposed operation to the Commission.

Observations must reach the European Commission not later than 10 days following the date of this publication. The following reference must always be specified:

M.8774 - Ivanhoe Cambridge / QuadReal Property Group / JV

Comments may be sent to the Commission by e-mail, fax or post. Please use the contact details below:

Directorate-General for Competition

(1) OJ L 24, 29.1.2004, p. 1 ('Merger Regulation').

Official Journal of the European Union

Prior notification of a concentration

(Case M.8540 - Kuehne + Nagel / Kuehne + Nagel Drinksflow Logistics)

Case that may be subject to the simplified procedure

(Text with EEA relevance)

On 8 January 2018, the European Commission received, pursuant to Article 4 of Regulation (EC) no. Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 (1), a notification of a proposed concentration.

That notification concerns the following undertakings:

Kuehne + Nagel Limited ('K + N', United Kingdom)

Kuehne + Nagel Drinkflow Logistics Holdings Limited ('K + NDL', United Kingdom), a joint venture controlled by K + N and Heineken UK Limited ('Heineken') and which is the parent company of Kuehne + Nagel Drinkflow Logistics Limited (“K + NDL AssetCo”).

K + N acquires, within the meaning of Article 3 (1) (b) of the Merger Regulation, sole control over K + NDL.

Concentration is achieved through the purchase of shares.

The economic activities of the undertakings concerned are:

- for K + N: the provision of contract logistics services in the United Kingdom. The economic activities carried out by K + N include the storage, warehousing and distribution of food, beverages and general purpose goods.

- for K + NDL: provision of beverage distribution services in the United Kingdom.

Following a preliminary examination, the European Commission finds that the notified transaction could be covered by the Merger Regulation. However, no final decision is taken in this regard.

In accordance with the Commission Notice on a simplified procedure for the analysis of certain concentrations under Regulation (EC) No. 139/2004 of the Council (2), it should be specified that this case can be treated according to the procedure provided in the communication.

The European Commission invites interested third parties to submit their possible observations on the proposed operation to the Commission.

Observations must reach the European Commission not later than 10 days following the date of this publication. The following reference must always be mentioned:

M.8540 - Kuehne + Nagel / Kuehne + Nagel Drinksflow Logistics

Comments may be sent to the Commission by e-mail, fax or post. Please use the contact details below:

Directorate-General for Competition

(1) OJ L 24, 29.1.2004, p. 1 ('Merger Regulation').

Official Journal of the European Union

Prior notification of a concentration

(Case M.8756 - Budget Group / Koç Holding / Olympic / Commercial and Tourist Enterprises Reviews)

Case that may be subject to the simplified procedure

(Text with EEA relevance)

On 10 January 2018, the European Commission received, pursuant to Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No. Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 (1), a notification of a proposed concentration.

That notification concerns the following undertakings:

Budget Group Inc. Reviews ("ABG", United States)

Koç Holding AS ('Koç', Turkey) and

Olympic Commercial and Tourist Enterprises SA (OCTE, Greece).

ABG and Koç acquire, within the meaning of Article 3 (1) (b) of the Merger Regulation, joint control of the entire OCTE undertaking.

Concentration is achieved through the purchase of shares.

The economic activities of the undertakings concerned are:

- for ABG: the provision of car rental services, in particular through its Avis and Budget brands. ABG also operates, through its Zipcar brand, a network of alternative car use by several people.

- for Koç: a global investment holding company operating in a wide range of sectors, including the energy, consumer durables and automotive sectors, as well as the financial sector

- for OCTE: provision of car rental services in Greece. OCTE operates as Avis Hellas and, since 2010, is the ABG franchisor in Greece for the Avis and Budget brands.

Following a preliminary examination, the European Commission finds that the notified transaction could be covered by the Merger Regulation. However, no final decision is taken in this regard.

In accordance with the Commission Notice on a simplified procedure for the analysis of certain concentrations under Regulation (EC) No. 139/2004 of the Council (2), it should be specified that this case can be treated according to the procedure provided in the communication.

The European Commission invites interested third parties to submit their possible observations on the proposed operation to the Commission.

Observations must reach the European Commission not later than 10 days following the date of this publication. The following reference must always be specified:

M.8756 - Opinion Budget Group / KOÇ Holding / Olympic commercial and Tourist Enterprises

Comments may be sent to the Commission by e-mail, fax or post. Please use the contact details below:

Directorate-General for Competition

(1) OJ L 24, 29.1.2004, p. 1 ('Merger Regulation').

Official Journal of the European Union

Prior notification of a concentration

(Case M.8480 - Praxair / Linde)

(Text with EEA relevance)

On 12 January 2018, the European Commission received, pursuant to Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No. Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 (1), a notification of a proposed concentration.

The notification concerns the following undertakings:

Praxair, Inc. ("Praxair", United States of America)

Praxair and Linde merge completely within the meaning of Article 3 (1) (a) of the Merger Regulation.

The concentration is achieved by acquiring shares in a newly created company.

The economic activities of the undertakings concerned are:

- for Praxair: supply of industrial gases, medical gases, special gases and related services, as well as surface coating technologies

- for Linde: supply of industrial gas, medical gas, special gas and related services, including industrial construction.

Following a preliminary examination, the European Commission finds that the notified transaction could be covered by the Merger Regulation. However, no final decision is taken in this regard.

The European Commission invites interested third parties to submit their possible observations on the proposed operation to the Commission.

Observations must reach the European Commission not later than 10 days following the date of this publication. The following reference must always be mentioned:

Comments may be sent to the Commission by e-mail, fax or post. Please use the contact details below:

Directorate-General for Competition

(1) OJ L 24, 29.1.2004, p. 1 ('Merger Regulation').

Official Journal of the European Union

Prior notification of a concentration

Case that may be subject to the simplified procedure

(Text with EEA relevance)

On 12 January 2018, the European Commission received, pursuant to Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No. Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004 (1), a notification of a proposed concentration.

The notification concerns the following undertakings:

PSA International Pte Ltd (Singapore),

Terminal Investment Limited SARL (Switzerland), jointly controlled by MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company Holding SA (Switzerland), Global Infrastructure Management (United States) and Global Infrastructure Partners (United States),

PSA Panama International Terminal SA (Panama), controlled by PSA International Pte Ltd (Singapore).

PSA International Pte Ltd and Terminal Investment Limited SARL acquire joint control of PSA Panama International Terminal SA within the meaning of Article 3 (1) (b) and Article 3 (4) of the Merger Regulation.

Concentration is achieved through the purchase of shares.

The economic activities of the undertakings concerned are:

- in the case of PSA International Pt. Ltd: port stowage services, in particular the provision of terminal services for container liners

- for Terminal Investment Limited SARL: investment, development and management in the container terminal sector

- for PSA Panama International Terminal SA: operation of a container terminal in Rodman Port, Panama.

Following a preliminary examination, the European Commission finds that the notified transaction could be covered by the Merger Regulation. However, no final decision is taken in this regard.

In accordance with the Commission Notice on a simplified procedure for the analysis of certain concentrations under Regulation (EC) No. 139/2004 of the Council (2), it should be specified that this case can be treated according to the procedure provided in the communication.

The European Commission invites interested third parties to submit their possible observations on the proposed operation to the Commission.

Observations must reach the European Commission not later than 10 days following the date of this publication. The following reference must always be mentioned:

Comments may be sent to the Commission by e-mail, fax or post. Please use the contact details below:

Directorate General of Competition

Graft of concentrations

(1) OJ L 24, 29.1.2004, p. 1 ('Merger Regulation').

Official Journal of the European Union

Publication of an application for approval of a minor amendment in accordance with the second subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council on agricultural and food quality systems

The European Commission has approved this minor amendment pursuant to the third subparagraph of Article 6 (2) of Delegated Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. Commission Regulation (EC) No 664/2014 (1)

APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF A MINOR CHANGE

Application for approval of a minor amendment in accordance with the second subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council (2)

"TOPOLOVEN PLUM MAGIC"

Nr. EU: PGI-RO-02194 - 30.9.2016

1. Applicant group and legitimate interest

SC Sonimpex Topoloveni SRL

Aleea Barajul Cucuteni, no. 4

Block M5A, staircase 1, apartment 10

Tel./Fax +40 213402666 +40 213046066

Working point: Topoloveni, Maximilian Popovici street, no. 56, Argeș county, ROMANIA.

SC Sonimpex Topoloveni SRL is the sole producer of "Topoloveni plum magiun" and, in this capacity, has a legitimate interest in submitting the application.

2. Member State or third country

3. Heading in the specification subject to change (s)

Other: Name and address of the authorities verifying the application of the provisions of the specifications and their precise mission

4. Type of change (s)

Modification of the specifications of a PDO or a registered PGI, which must be considered minor in accordance with the third subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. 1151/2012 and which does not require the modification of the single published document

Modification of the specifications of a PDO or a registered PGI, which must be considered minor in accordance with the third subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. 1151/2012 and which requires the modification of the single published document

Amendment of the specifications of a PDO or a registered PGI for which no single document (or equivalent) has been published, a change to be considered minor in accordance with the third subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of the Regulation ( EU) no. 1151/2012

Amendment of the specification of a registered TSG to be considered minor in accordance with the fourth subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011. 1151/2012

The product "Topoloveni plum magiun (IGP)" remained unchanged, its characteristics being completely preserved.

In the Specifications, in Chapter 3 "Description of the food" point 3.3 under the "Shelf life", the shelf life will be changed from 24 months to 36 months for the product packaged in jars.

The verification of the product's behavior over time, made by the team of specialists of the production unit and confirmed by tests performed in specialized laboratories have shown that the product "Topoloveni plum magiun (IGP)" retains its unaltered organoleptic and physico-chemical qualities 2908 / 4.7.2016, No. 3066 / 14.7.2016, the results and interpretation of the sensory analysis of Magiun de prune Topoloveni - protected geographical indication No. 945 / 14.7.2016 - issued by IBA Bucharest laboratory).

The production method has not been changed. However, some corrections or updates to some of the terms and values ​​in the original Terms of Reference and Single Document are required.

1. Drafting error: instead of "50-52 degrees Brix", the correct value is "55 degrees Brix".

When writing the initial Specification (in Chapter 6: "Description of the method of obtaining the food", in "Concentration:") there was a drafting error - instead of "50-52 degrees Brix", the correct value is "55 grade Brix ”. The same error was taken up in the original Single Document (in Chapter 3.5: "Specific stages of production to be carried out in the defined geographical area:" in the paragraph "Concentration:").

The applicant group considers it necessary to correct the typing error, because in the Specifications the correct value of "55 degrees Brix" is mentioned in Chapter 3: "Description of the food" point 3.2 under "Physico-chemical characteristics" in the parameter "Dry substance". There was a drafting error in the Terms of Reference and the Single Document mentioned above.

2. 'Wooden anchor shakers' is replaced by 'anchor shakers'.

The production unit, in order to rigorously control the quality of the product, has invested in upgrading the equipment, including the purchase of new double-walled boilers, in which the plum brand is concentrated. The new equipment is equipped with stainless steel anchor shakers. The modification of the material from which the stirrers are made does not influence the organoleptic properties of the finished product. The words "wooden" shall be deleted in the wording "wooden anchor shakers" in the Specifications (Chapter 6: "Description of the method of obtaining the food", in "Concentration:", second paragraph), and in the Single Document (in Chapter 3.5: Specific steps in production that must take place in the identified geographical area, Chapter 5: Link with the geographical area in point 5.2 and point 5.3 (6)).

The amendment complies with the requirements of Regulation (EC) No Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council (3) (Chapter 5 - Requirements for equipment, Article 1 (b)).

3. Deletion of the phrase: "do not overuse chemical fertilizers" in the Specifications and the Single Document.

We propose deleting the phrase "do not overuse chemical fertilizers" in the Single Document in point 3.3 and in the Specifications (page 4: Description of the food) as it does not significantly affect the finished product and does not substantially change the physico-chemical characteristics of the product.

We justify the elimination of the expression “chemical fertilizers are not used excessively” because we wanted to produce Topoloveni plum magiun - PGI in an ecological system, but the demands of the Romanian market did not coincide with our wish and it was decided to give up this product.

1. Name and address of the authorities verifying the application of the provisions of the Specifications

In the Specifications, in Chapter 9: "Name and address of the authorities and bodies verifying the application of the provisions of the specification and their precise mission" The applicant group requests (Chapter 9) the replacement of the name and identification data of the certification body, respectively "CERTIND SA" instead of "LAREX CERT". The same change applies in the Single Document, point 3.7: "Specific rules on labeling", last paragraph.

The inspection and certification body CERTIND SA is accredited according to SR EN ISO / CEI 17065: 2013 for the PDO / PGI certification schemes, on the requirements of Regulation (EU) no. 1151/2012.

6. Updated specification (PDO and PGI only)

Only in the cases referred to in the fifth subparagraph of Article 6 (2) of Delegated Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. 664/2014: (a) in the case of applications submitted by Member States, insert the reference to the publication of the updated specification; (b) in the case of applications submitted by third countries, insert the updated specification.

The link where it will be published on the website www.madr.ro Specifications Edition 1, revision 1 (December 2015):

"TOPOLOVEN PLUM MAGIC"

Nr. EU: PGI-RO-02194 - 30.9.2016

"Topoloveni plum magician"

2. Member State or third country

3. Description of the agricultural or food product

Class 1.6. Fruit, vegetables and cereals, fresh or processed

3.2. Description of the product to which the name in (1) applies

Topoloveni plum magiun is a fine paste, homogeneous throughout the mass of the product, without mass agglomerations or traces of peel, glossy on the surface due to the local manufacturing method. Topoloveni plum magiun is made from quality plums, carefully selected at full ripeness for ripening. The skin of plums is integrated into the final product, which increases its nutritional quality, being known that the skin contains most of the biologically active substances, phytonutrients (antioxidants, vitamins, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, etc.).

The color of plum plum is dark brown due to the ripening plums, being influenced by the long cooking time in the concentration phase.

The plum magiun has a sweet-sour taste, pleasant from well-ripened plums with a strong and pleasant aroma, without taste and foreign smell of burnt, fermented or mold.

3.3. Feed (only for products of animal origin) and raw materials (only for processed products)

In the manufacture of Topoloveni plum magiun, ripe plums from the cultivation of brumarii plums (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica) and their derivatives: Stanley, Piteștean, Tuleu timpuriu, Tuleu gras, Grasa ameliorată, Grasa Românească, Bistrițeană, Vânătă Românească, Brumării, Vâlcean, Centenar, Pescăruș, Dâmbovița, Tomnatici de Caransebeș, Silvia, Boambe de Leord.

Fruits of these varieties have the necessary qualities to obtain magiun due to the high content of carbohydrates (natural sugar) and vitamin C obtained by the full maturity of ripening plums over a long period of time, at a moderate (mild) temperature.

Only well-ripened and carefully selected fruits are used in the production process of Topoloveni plum magiun. The fruit must be healthy, free from signs of rot, mechanical damage or visible damage caused by insects, mites or other pests.

3.4. Specific steps in production that must take place in the identified geographical area

3.5. Specific rules regarding slicing, scraping, packaging, etc. of the product to which the registered name relates

The establishment where the process of processing plums for the production of Topoloveni plum jam takes place must be in the geographical area indicated in point 4.

Reception: plums are received at the processing section, stored in spaces specially designed for this purpose, cool, clean, free of foreign odors.

Washing: it is done mechanically in washing machines, with rinsing showers, with the help of cold drinking water. The washing is done under permanent supervision so that sand or other impurities do not enter the finished product.

Sorting: washed plums are routed to the lifting belt to identify and remove unsuitable plums.

Heat treatment: consists of scalding in special stainless steel installations, with the help of technological steam, at a temperature of 80 ° C and a pressure of 1.5 atm., For 4-5 minutes.

The birding is performed in two stages: the first stage takes place in the sieve (site) with meshes of max. 3 mm, and the second stage of poultry takes place in the refinery (site) with 1.8-2 mm mesh, so that the plum mark is as clean and homogeneous as possible.

Concentration: the plum brandy is concentrated by boiling in double-walled, open boilers, up to a concentration of at least 55% dry matter, obtaining the Topoloveni plum magiun. Concentration consists in removing water from the plum at a controlled temperature. The concentration takes place with the help of technological steam circulating through the double walls of the boilers until the product has reached the concentration of 55 degrees Brix, for 9-12 hours, depending on the dry matter content of the raw material.

Double-walled boilers are equipped with anchor-type stirrers, which ensure the permanent (continuous) homogenization of the plum mark to prevent sticking and caramelization. The concentration is checked by qualified personnel using a portable refractometer to determine the quality of the finished product. It is not recommended to prolong the cooking time after reaching the concentration of 60 degrees Brix, because the Topoloveni plum magiun can acquire the smell and taste of burning, and the decrease of the cooking time can lead to the fermentation of the finished product.

Dosage - cooling: Topoloveni plum Magiun batch is evenly divided into three barrels with a capacity of 200 l, lined with PVC bags (food foil), manually, with the help of wooden shavings (large spoons), in thin layers, to accelerate the cooling process to ambient temperature for storage in specially designed spaces.

The filling of the barrels doubled with food foil is done in stages, for 5-7 days during the process of integral cooling of the Topoloveni plum magiun, depending on the ambient temperature. Checking the cooling is done organoleptically, using a shovel or wooden spoon (spoon).

It is forbidden to add preservatives or sweeteners, regardless of the quality of the raw material used.

3.6. Specific rules concerning the labeling of the product to which the registered name relates

The packaging and storage is carried out in the delimited area, respectively in the city of Tolopoveni, in order to keep the qualities of the Topoloveni Plum Magiun unchanged. The maturation and drying process of Topoloveni plum magiun must be strictly followed.

Due to the action of physico-chemical and biological agents that act under the influence of air and heat outside the barrels, the color, smell and taste of the magiun can be altered if the packaging process is not appropriate.

Supervision of the product is mandatory throughout the packaging and cooling to avoid the occurrence of condensation, ie the presence of water in micron quantities, which would facilitate the development of microorganisms - bacteria, yeasts and molds.

The packaging of the Topoloveni plum magiun is made in bulk and in jars.

Bulk packaging is done in barrels in which a food foil (PVC bag) is inserted. The barrels with magiun are cooled, the edges of the PVC bags (food foil) are cleaned, folded, another PVC disc (food foil) is added, after which they are tightly closed with the lids of the barrels.

Bulk packaging is necessary because only fresh plums are used as raw material, which are purchased in a short period of time, up to 60 days a year (August 15-October 15 maximum). Bulk packaging is not subject to pasteurization.

For packaging in glass jars, the batch of Topoloveni plum Magiun is automatically dosed (on a packaging line) in them, stapled and then directed to pasteurization as follows:

for 350 g jars the following formula is observed: raising the temperature to 100 ° C in 15 min., maintaining it 25 min. and return in 15 min.

for 800 g jars the following formula is observed: raising the temperature to 105 ° C in 15 min., maintaining it for 45 min. and return in 15 min.

The jars with Tolopoveni plum magic are taken out of the autoclave, placed in containers and stored in the specially arranged space, respectively clean, cool warehouses (max. 20 ° C), well ventilated, protected from frost, without foreign odors.

The scalding of the plums, the concentration of the plum brand and the last phase of the process of obtaining the Topoloveni plum magiun, respectively the bulk packaging (barrels), presuppose long periods of time characteristic of the Topoloveni plum magiun.

Each package bears the manufacturer's label. It must contain the name "Topoloveni plum magician". After Community registration, the words "protected geographical indication" or the abbreviation PGI must appear on the label of the packaging, next to the product name: "Topoloveni plum magiun".

The product certification mark "CERTIND SA" of the inspection and certification body shall be affixed to the right side of the label.

4. Concise delimitation of the geographical area

5. The connection with the geographical area

Specificity of the geographical area:

The Topoloveni orchard is favorable for plum cultivation due to the temperate-continental climate and the pedoclimatic conditions of the area, especially the slopes with higher average annual temperatures than in the rest of the orchards. The area is characterized by podzolic soils, reddish-brown podzolic soils.

The predominant soil type is that of brown soils, starting from luvisols to eroded brown soils, colluvial and alluvial, with medium or low humus content.

The area has favorable climatic conditions for growing trees, the average multiannual temperature is 9.7 ° C, the absolute maximum temperature is 38.8 ° C, and the absolute minimum is –24.4 ° C, the amount of annual precipitation is 663.3 mm.

The first autumn frosts appear at the end of October, and the last ones are registered in the second decade of April and quite accidentally later.

The share of different varieties differs depending on the climatic conditions of each year.

Plums are cultivated on approximately 25% of the total area of ​​land intended for fruit cultivation, the plum orchards occupying around 17,000 ha in Argeș.

The skill of the locals in selecting the plums and following the boiling and ripening process, respectively the organoleptic verification of the product contributed to the preservation and development of the method of obtaining the magiun in the geographical area.

Topoloveni plum magiun is a consistent product, obtained from plums harvested at full maturity, carefully selected and then cooked in special boilers (with double walls) without direct fire, by continuous mixing with anchor-type stirrers. Due to the fact that water is removed, Magiunul de plum Topoloveni is rich in soluble and insoluble dietary fiber (34.2%), does not contain added sugars or any other type of sweetener and has the aroma, taste and flavor of plums.

Causal link between the geographical area and the quality or characteristics of the product (for PDO) or a specific quality, the reputation or other characteristics of the product (for PGI):

The connection of the Topoloveni plum magiun with the production region is based mainly on the reputation based on a long specific production tradition and on the exceptional sanogenic quality characteristics that are due to the skill of the locals by using the local method.

The locally developed production method consists in processing some varieties of plums, by boiling them in boilers with double walls, open, with permanent stirring of the brand until the magiun is obtained, for a long time, without the addition of sugar or other preservatives.

The skill and experience of the locals is different from the methods used in other parts of Romania and in neighboring regions, because the process of boiling and concentrating is done in open duplicate boilers, not in a vacuum.

Over time, the local method of preparing the magiun has been passed down from generation to generation, maintaining its reputation both in the defined geographical area and throughout the country.

Magiun, mentioned in ethnographic documents, was an important product for the vast majority of the inhabitants of Topoloveni area, being one of the sources of income in the area. The Topoloveni Fair, the main zonal trade market, has gained a reputation throughout the Southern Subcarpathian region due to the sale of plum products, especially magiun.

The process of removing water from plums by boiling, concentrating plums at a controlled temperature and homogenizing by anchor-type stirrers with a permanent operation guarantees obtaining the quality and specific characteristics of Topoloveni plum magiun. These technological phases (stages) are not found in other regions.

Topoloveni plum magiun's reputation is linked to a long tradition of producing magiun in Topoloveni. According to local archives, the tradition of making magiun in this area dates back to 1914, when the first magiun factory of a local family (Maximilian Popovici family) was established.

In 1941, the factory was taken over by the Ministry of Agriculture under the name of Topoloveni Cooperative, in order to increase the production capacity of plum magiun. In 1972, the name of the factory was changed to the Pitești Vegetable and Fruit Enterprise. Then, in 1981, the factory was taken over by the local administration under the name Topoloveni Vegetable and Fruit Processing and Industrialization Enterprise. Since 2001, the factory has been acquired by S.C. Sonimpex Serv Com SRL. The production of Topoloveni plum magiun is currently around 200 tons per year.

The reputation of the Topoloveni plum magician is proven by press articles and publications (specialized works) frequently published in the local and national press (Jurnalul Național, Adevărul, the Money Channel, Gândul, Capital) and by the awards received since 2002 by participating in exhibitions, respectively the National Cannery Salon, organized by the General Union of Romanian Industrialists (Golden Brand Excellence Award - Magiun). Topoloveni plum magician was awarded in 2010 by ITQI (International Taste and Quality Institute).

In the period 2008-2010, shows were made in the local and national media with distinct themes to promote the specific qualities of the Topoloveni plum magiun. The authenticity of the Topoloveni plum magiun is continued by preserving the method of promotion by selling in fairs similar to the Topoloveni fair.

The specific food specificity regarding the traditional consumption of magiun was accentuated by the presentation (tasting) of the product at national and international fairs and exhibitions (Green Week - Berlin, Fruit Logistica - Berlin, Alimentaria - Barcelona).

Reference to the publication of the Specifications

(second subparagraph of Article 6 (1) of this Regulation)

Official Journal of the European Union

Publication of a request for amendment pursuant to Article 50 (2) (b) of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010. 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council on agricultural and food quality systems

This publication confers the right to oppose the request for amendment pursuant to Article 51 of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011. 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council (1).

APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF A NON-MINOR AMENDMENT TO THE SPECIFICATIONS OF A GUARANTEED TRADITIONAL SPECIALTY

Application for approval of an amendment pursuant to the first subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 1151/2012

„BRATISLAVSKÝ ROŽOK” / „PRESSBURGER KIPFEL” / „POZSONYI KIFLI”

Nr. EU: TSG-SK-02120 - 15.2.2016

1. Applicant group and legitimate interest

Cech pekárov a cukrárov Regiónu západného Slovenska

The group requesting the amendment is the same group that applied for registration of 'Bratislavský rožok' / 'Pressburger Kipfel' / 'Pozsonyi kifli'.

2. Member State or third country

3. Heading in the specification subject to change (s)

Modifying the contact details of the requesting group

Change regarding the reservation of the name

Modification of the contact details of the body certifying compliance with the product specification

Modification of minimum requirements and procedures for verification of specificity

4. Type of change (s)

Amendment of the specifications of a registered TSG which shall not be considered as minor in accordance with the fourth subparagraph of Article 53 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011. 1151/2012

1. Modification of the contact details of the requesting group

The e-mail address of the requesting group can be changed from [email protected] to [email protected]

We remove the German name 'Pressburger Kipfel' from the registered product name 'Bratislavský rožok' / 'Pressburger Kipfel' / 'Pozsonyi kifli', as this is not the name used in Austria or Germany for this type of product. The most commonly used name in Austria and Germany is 'Pressburger Beugel'.

The new name of the product to be registered is 'Bratislavský rožok' / 'Pozsonyi kifli'.

We have modified the entire specification to reflect this name change.

Select the option "Register with reservation of the name" instead of the option "Registration without reservation of the name". The reason for this change is Article 25 (2) of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011. 1151/2012.

Both Slovakia and Hungary are interested in maintaining the registration of the product name 'Bratislavský rožok' / 'Pozsonyi kifli' in the register of protected names.

In the product description, we change the weight of the product from 40-60 g, as initially specified, to 40-70 g.This change is based on a mutual agreement with Hungary, where bakers also produce this product weighing 70 g.

We propose to remove the following details from the product description:

'Chemical properties of the finished product:

fat content in the dry matter - minimum 20%

sugar content in the dry matter - at least 12%. "

This change is motivated by the specification of the fat content in point 3.6 and the fact that the percentage of sugar in the dry matter is not required as an indicator.

We propose that the tables showing the recipe for 1 000 products weighing 50-55 g be deleted from the description of the production method for the agricultural product or foodstuff and that the recipe be replaced by the following:

"The main raw materials used to obtain the dough are: wheat flour, fat (table margarine, puff pastry margarine, butter, lard, etc.), sugar, salt, yeast (0.5-1% of the amount of flour), eggs , powdered milk, vanilla or vanilla sugar, lemon peel or dried lemon peel and water, cinnamon sugar can also be used. The fat / flour ratio of the dough must be at least 30%.

Walnut filling is usually obtained by adding crystal sugar (or honey), sweet breadcrumbs, vanilla or vanilla sugar and cinnamon sugar to the ground walnut kernel and by mixing these ingredients with hot water or milk.

Poppy filling is usually obtained by adding crystal sugar (or honey), sweet breadcrumbs and vanilla or vanilla sugar to ground poppy seeds and by mixing these ingredients with hot water or milk.

To improve its flavor, jam (plum or apricot) or raisins can be added to the filling. ”

The reason for this change is that different producers in Slovakia and Hungary use different proportions of each raw material and the recipe is not product specific. The finished product is specific to each baker and pastry chef. It is not necessary to specify the quantities for each ingredient, as the minimum parameters of the finished product are checked. We therefore propose that the recipe be replaced by the following text, which lists the raw materials used and allows producers (including those outside Slovakia) to use raw materials that are available and commonly used, which consumers in the region expect and which follow traditional recipes, which are slightly different from one region to another.

In the product description, where reference is made to "vanilla sugar", this term is replaced by "vanilla sugar or vanilla sugar".

This change is due to the fact that vanilla sugar is now used more often than vanilla sugar. This change does not affect the finished product and has been made throughout the specifications.

In the Slovak text, in the point concerning the production method, we replace the word 'žemle' with the word 'klonky', as the latter is the technical term.

We propose that, in the product description, the phrase "decreasing diameter" be replaced by the phrase "thin".

The purpose of this amendment is to increase clarity by using the term technical.

In the second paragraph on the production method, we propose that the wording "(the volume of liquid is equivalent to 35-40% of the quantity of poppy seeds)" be inserted at the end of the sentence "The poppy seed filling is prepared with hot water ”. The purpose of this change is to specify the amount of liquid used in the recipe and to maintain the quality.

We replace the sentence "Maximum 10% by weight of ground walnut kernel or poppy seed may be replaced by sweet breadcrumbs" with the following sentence: "Up to 10% by weight of ground walnut kernel or poppy seed in the filling may be replaced by sweet breadcrumbs. ” The purpose of this amendment is to ensure the quality and to specify the quantity of breadcrumbs to be used.

Baking temperature and baking time must be adjusted to take account of the change in the size of the product introduced in point 3.5 and the various types of ovens.

It is proposed that the temperature be changed to 170-220 ° C and that the baking time be 15-20 minutes for products weighing 50-70 g.

This change is intended to cover the baking temperatures of the different types of ovens and to take account of the increase in the maximum weight of the product from 60 g to 70 g.

With regard to labeling, we propose to add the following sentence: "The size of the logo must be at least 15 mm.", As this is a regulatory requirement overlooked by manufacturers.

Regarding the marketing method and the place of marketing, we add the following sentence: "In the case of non-prepacked products, the TSG logo may appear on the price label close to the product name or on an information plate in the vicinity of the products."

This change is intended to provide clarity when the products are sold in bulk.

We change the wording used for storage by removing the words “Store at +10 ° C” and replacing them with the following: “Storage: at room temperature. Depending on the amount of yeast used, the product lasts 3-10 days. ”

The reason for this change is that the existing requirement was not justified, the quality of the products sold decreased, it was often ignored and caused problems for producers due to the high fat content of the product. The storage temperature requirement was set out in the original specification only because these products were classified as pastries.

5. Specific character of the agricultural product or foodstuff

In the fifth indent, we add the following: "It must not be manufactured as a semi-finished, pre-baked and quick-frozen product which is then thawed and baked to become a finished product, but must always be freshly baked."

The reason is that the product must be fresh and made according to a traditional recipe has never been frozen or precooked in the past.

In the sixth indent, we change the wording for egg greasing before baking, the words "usually twice" being deleted.

The amendment is intended to give producers the freedom to decide what type of marbling they want - it is not necessary to impose requirements in this regard. This change does not affect the finished product.

6. Minimum requirements and procedures for verification of specificity

In the first sentence, we add the following: "must have a fat / flour ratio of at least 30%."

The reason for this change is consistency with points 3.6 and 3.7 of the product specification.

We remove the reference to "chemical and microbiological requirements", leaving only the physical requirements.

This amendment is introduced because the legislation does not contain microbiological requirements, as they are no longer defined, their presence is no longer justified in the context of pre-commercial controls, and the chemical requirements were not defined in the original specifications either. It is a matter of terminological clarity.

7. Authorities or bodies verifying compliance with the specifications

The e-mail address of the body verifying compliance with the product specifications changes to "[email protected]".

This change reflects the change of email addresses within the organization.

SPECIFICATIONS OF A GUARANTEED TRADITIONAL SPECIALTY

„BRATISLAVSKÝ ROŽOK” / „POZSONYI KIFLI”

Nr. EU: TSG-SK-02120 - 15.2.2016

1. Proposed name (s) for registration

„Bratislavský rožok” / „Pozsonyi kifli”

Class 2.24. Bread, pastry, cakes, confectionery, biscuits and other baker's wares

3. Reasons for registration

results from a method of production or processing or a composition which corresponds to traditional practice for the product or food in question

it is produced from raw materials or ingredients that are those traditionally used.

The Slovak name "Bratislavský rožok" began to be used around 1920, after the city of Pressburg, then part of Czechoslovakia and the capital of Slovakia, was renamed Bratislava. Since that year, the name of the pastry product has been adapted to reflect the new name of the city, becoming 'Bratislavský rožok'. After the adoption of the new name of the city, the word Kipfel began to be used in Austria, instead of the usual Beugel, combined with the old name of the city. The name originally used in Hungarian was 'Pozsonyi patkó', which could be translated as 'Bratislava horseshoe'. According to the latest information available to us from several bakers or pastry chefs in Hungary, especially Budapest, this product is manufactured and marketed under the name 'Pozsonyi kifli', the Slovak translation of which is 'Bratislavský rožok', Pozsony being the original name of the city, used until 1918. Given the common customs, we propose to keep the name "Pozsonyi kifli".

has traditionally been used to designate the specific product

shows the traditional character or the specific character of the product.

The product is specific in terms of composition and production method established over time. The term 'Bratislavský rožok' is used to refer only to this particular type of fine bakery or pastry product.

The specific character of the product is determined by its special surface, which is marbled, ie it has vines of a lighter color than the rest of the crust. The surfaces of other bakery and confectionery products are not finished in this way:

the product differs from similar types of fine bakery or pastry products on the market due to both its shape and weight and the amount of filling. More fat is added to the dough than in other products and no other type of fine pastry has a marbled surface

the product has a special aroma and taste, due to the filling used, with poppy seeds or walnuts

the product has a distinctive appearance and a horseshoe or letter C shape.

In order to preserve the traditional character of the product, its preparation must comply with the following recipe requirements:

the fat / flour ratio of the dough must be at least 30%

the filling must be at least 40% of the total weight of the baked product

the product must be greased with egg or egg yolk before baking, so that the baked product has a marbled surface.

4.1. Description of the product to which the name in (1) applies, including the main physical, chemical, microbiological or organoleptic characteristics of the product, which demonstrate its specific character (Article 7 (2) of this Regulation)

Fine bakery or pastry product, with poppy or walnut filling and a glossy and marbled surface.

Color: brown to dark brown crust when cut, after a few millimeters of solid coating, there is only the filling - the one with poppy is dark gray to black, the one with walnut is brown.

Appearance: on top, the crust has a uniform and glossy surface of brown to dark brown color, with delicate vines of a lighter color, which give a marbled appearance.

Texture: firm but delicate coating, which breaks when broken.

Smell and taste: delicate, typical for the filling used (typical aroma of walnut or poppy), sweet and pleasant taste, marked by the aroma of the ingredients used.

Shape: horseshoe-shaped, thinned towards the ends, in the case of the poppy seed filling, and the letter C in the case of the walnut filling.

Weight: usually 40-70 g.

4.2. Description of the production method of the product to which the name in point 1 applies, a method to be followed by producers, including, where appropriate, the nature and characteristics of the raw materials or ingredients used and the method of preparation of the product (Article 7 paragraph 2 of this Regulation]

The main raw materials used to make the dough are: wheat flour, fat (table margarine, puff pastry margarine, butter, lard, etc.), sugar, salt, yeast (0.5-1% of the amount of flour), eggs, powdered milk, vanilla or vanilla sugar, lemon peel or dried lemon peel and water, cinnamon sugar can also be used. The fat / flour ratio of the dough must be at least 30% and the filling must be at least 40% of the weight of the finished product.

Walnut filling is usually obtained by adding crystal sugar (or honey), sweet breadcrumbs, vanilla or vanilla sugar and cinnamon sugar to the ground walnut kernel and by mixing these ingredients with hot water or milk.

Poppy filling is usually obtained by adding crystal sugar (or honey), sweet breadcrumbs and vanilla or vanilla sugar to ground poppy seeds and by mixing these ingredients with hot water or milk.

To improve its flavor, jam (plum or apricot) or raisins can be added to the filling.

The dough is prepared by mixing the flour with water or water to which powdered milk has been added, as well as with yeast, salt, sugar and edible fat. The fat can be mixed with the flour at the beginning, the other raw materials being added later. The mixed dough is left to rise for about 30-40 minutes. After the volume of the dough increases visibly, the dough is kneaded again a little, after which it will be separated into pieces which are given a spherical shape. After being left to rise for 15-20 minutes, these dough balls are stretched into elliptical strips with a maximum diameter of 12-15 cm. The thickness of the strips of dough should be 2-3 mm. On the strips of dough spread are placed cylindrical filling portions with poppy seeds or walnuts, after which they are rolled to form cylinders with a length of 12-15 cm, gradually thinned towards the ends. After wrapping the filling, the dough should be joined evenly, and the joint line should be on the underside of the product when it is placed in a crescent shape on the baking tray. The product is horseshoe-shaped if the filling is poppy-shaped and shaped like a letter C if the filling is walnut. The shapes must be different enough to be clear from a glance what filling they contain.

Poppy filling is prepared by boiling or scalding poppy seeds (the volume of liquid is equivalent to 35-40% of the amount of poppy seeds). The sugar is dissolved in a small amount of water and brought to a boil (honey can be used instead of sugar). Stirring constantly, to the dissolved sugar gradually add the ground poppy seeds mixed with milk powder, sweet breadcrumbs and raisins and boil everything until you get a fairly dense paste. After cooling and thickening, add grated lemon peel or lemon paste to the poppy seed filling for flavoring, along with cinnamon and a small amount of vanilla sugar, if necessary.The walnut filling is not boiled, the ground walnut kernel being simply mixed with sugar (or honey), raisins, powdered milk, hot water, vanilla or vanilla sugar and ground cinnamon. Up to 10% by weight of ground walnut kernel or ground poppy seeds in the filling may be replaced by sweet breadcrumbs.

Both fillings must be dense enough to form small rolls by hand.

The products that have been given the appropriate shape are placed on a baking tray and greased with whole egg or just egg yolk. Egg-greased products placed on trays are left in a cool and ventilated place until the egg on the surface dries a little. After the surface has dried and the products have leavened a little, the surface is greased again with egg, after which it is left to dry again and then put in a leavening oven. After leavening, the products are baked, becoming fine pastries with leavened dough. During fermentation and especially during baking, the dry egg on the surface cracks slightly, generating the typical marbled appearance of the product's crust.

The products are baked without steam at 170-220 ° C.

The duration of baking depends on the size of the products. Baking time is 10-12 minutes for products weighing 40-50 g and 15-20 minutes for products weighing 50-70 g.

After cooling, the ripe products are ready for shipment and marketing.

The technical losses after baking are about 10%, depending on the weight of the product and the consistency of the filling.

Labeling: the name of the product, 'Bratislavský rožok', or its Hungarian equivalent, as well as the Union logo or the logo and the words 'Traditional specialty guaranteed' must be highlighted. The acronym "STG" may appear on the packaging. The size of the logo must be at least 15 mm.

Marketing method and place of sale: 'Bratislavský rožok' is sold individually in manufacturers' specialty shops or in pastry shops, cafes and fast food outlets. In the case of non-prepacked products, the TSG logo may appear on the price label, close to the product name, or on an information plate in the vicinity of the products.

Storage: at room temperature.

Depending on the amount of yeast used, the product lasts 3-10 days.

The product is made by hand, not industrially.

It must not be manufactured as a semi-finished, pre-baked and quick-frozen product which is then thawed and finished in the oven, but must always be freshly baked.

4.3. Description of the main elements giving the product its traditional character (Article 7 (2) of this Regulation)

The traditional character of the product is based on its traditional composition, according to which the filling must constitute at least 40% of the total weight of the finished product.

The product has been made for over two centuries under its specific name in the neighboring countries, Austria and Hungary, with which Slovakia formed a single state almost 90 years ago.

In his book 'S vareškou dvoma tisícročiami', Vladimír Tomčík states that, according to accounting records, 'Bratislavský rožok' has been sold in inns since 1590, but the secret of its manufacture is much older.

In his work “Ulice a námestia mesta Bratislavy”, published in 1905 in Bratislava, on page 305, Tivadar Ortvay states that not far from Viktor Mayer's pastry shop is the old Scheuermann bakery (now Lauda), where small horseshoes are made. poppy seeds and walnut seeds, specialties for which the city of Bratislava became famous "[" Street of Bratislava Wigand]. See also pages 304 and 305 of the book: Scheuermann's bakery is mentioned in Annex 1, in Hungarian, for the market now called 'Hviezdoslav Square'. The relevant part of the text is as follows: “Nearby is the old Scheuermann bakery (now Lauda), which makes small horseshoes with poppy seeds and walnuts, specialties for which the city of Bratislava became famous. These specialties include "bratislavský suchár".

The work “Chlieb náš každodenný”, by V. Szemes et V. Karovič, published in 1992 in Bratislava, on page 52 states that: “On the occasion of the feast of St. Nicholas in 1785, the baker Schiermann put a new way of pastry, with filling, which has gone down in history as the “prešpurské beugle”. As for the difference between the name Scheuermann and Schiermann, we consider that it is a typographical error and that the correct name is Scheuermann.

Not long after, there were already several bakers in Bratislava making 'Bratislavský rožok'. One of the best known was Schwappach Ágoston, whose bakery opened in 1834 and offered small horseshoes with poppy seeds and walnuts. Two of the descendants of the producers of "Bratislavský rožok" Scheuermann and Lauda were the master baker Johann Korče, who lived between 1851 and 1919 and was a knight of the Order of Franz Joseph, and his son, the master baker Hans Korče. After the Korče family, Emil Kastner followed.

The famous Gustáv Wendler Bakery on Štefánikova Street in Bratislava was also famous, which even shipped 'Bratislavský rožok' by post.

In an old Bratislava magazine called "Pressburger Wegweiser" from 1863, pastry chef Anton Pressberg advertised his own "beugel" with poppy seeds and walnuts.

The Viennese newspaper 'Neue Freie Presse' of 16 April 1938 presents a recipe for 'Pressburger Kipfel - Bratislavské rožky'. The recipe and description of the production method are almost identical to the manufacturing instructions used today.

Terézia Vansová and Ján Babilon also described "Bratislavský rožok" in their 1870 book.

Over time, bakers and pastry chefs began to produce 'Bratislavský rožok' in several European cities, especially in Austria, the Czech Republic and Hungary. According to information obtained by bakery experts from other countries, a product called 'Bratislavský rožok' is manufactured in several cities, or at least the shape, recipe and general method of production of this product are known. Especially after 1950, in the former Czechoslovakia, vocational training courses in the manufacture of 'Bratislavský rožok' were taught in vocational schools specializing in bakery and pastry. The name 'Bratislavský rožok' began to be used in 1918, after the creation of Czechoslovakia and after the change of the name of the city from Pressburg or Pozsony to Bratislava. The product name has also changed. The original name "Beugel" became "patkó" in Hungarian, meaning "horseshoe". It seems that the term "rožok" has only begun to be used in connection with the new name of the city. In Hungary, the name 'Pozsonyi kifli' ('Bratislavský rožok') is still used, so the old name of the city together with the new name based on the shape. The name "Pressburger Kipfel" is also used more often in Austria, with the name "Beugel" being less common.

Although it is a product with a long history, 'Bratislavský rožok' remains a popular product today. It is estimated that this product is regularly manufactured in more than 20 bakeries and confectioneries and is prepared at least once a week in dozens of other production units in Slovakia.

In 1999 and 2005, the Slovak Bakers' Association presented, in the final of a world competition entitled 'Coupe Lesaffre', held in Paris, among other competing products, 'Bratislavský rožok', which was highly appreciated by part of the jury.

At the beginning of 2007, at the Danubius Gastro exhibition in Bratislava, the international competition for the award of the best 'Bratislavský rožok' was organized for the first time, with nine teams from three different countries participating (see the first page of Bratislavské noviny of 25 January 2007).

Bratislava newspapers and several national periodicals published a series of articles about the competition.

An article on 'Bratislavský rožok' also appeared in the daily 'Nový čas' on 25 July 2008. The article also contains a traditional recipe dating from 1938, and the shape of the product is described as follows:'… [the product] is shaped horseshoe-shaped if the filling is made of poppy and in the shape of the letter C if the filling is made of walnut. '

On page 52, the magazine 'Epicure' contains an article entitled 'Bratislavský rožok - tradícia s dlhou históriou', in which it can be read that 'Bratislavský rožok' is made in the form of a horseshoe when filled with poppy seeds and in the form of the letter C when filled with walnuts. "


Korpás Árpád: A Pozsonyba érkező magyar vendégeket anyanyelven kell megszólítani

The town of Honti Múzeum is located in Galéria Baráti Köre. A lelkes csoport kalauza az ipolysági gyökerekkel rendelkező Korpás Árpád idegenvezető-szakember, a Pozsonyi Kifli Polgári Társulás alelnöke volt. A pozsonyi városnézés kapcsán kérdezte a Felvidék.ma többek között a magyar nyelvű városnézés ötletéről, a társulás terveiről a szakavatott és nagy tudású idegenvezetőt.

A Pozsonyi Kifli Polgári Társulás kötetek kiadásával is foglalkozik. Melyek a legutóbb napvilágot látott köteteik?

Június elején három magyar nyelvű könyv bemutatójára került sor a Csemadok pozsonyi székházában. Viera Kamenická a Pozsonyi ssidó mesék című könyve legfőbb erénye, hogy személyes hangon szólal meg. Ezt segítik a szerző saját illusztrációi, illetve a kötet végén elhelyezett néhány fotó is a régi pozsonyi zsidó negyed képeivel. Ahogy azt a Pozsonyi Kifli mesekönyveinél megszokhattuk, rövid kis szótáracska is segít bennünket eligazodni a mesék mai olvasói számára sokszor már ismeretlen régi kifejezésekben. Csanda Gábor gördülékeny magyar fordításának hála, a 2017-es szlovák kiadás után most már magyarul is betekintést kaphatunk a pozsonyi zsidó mesekincsbe.

Az élvezetes előadás egy mozzanata (Photo: Pásztor Péter / Felvidék.ma)

A másik kötet a Fadrusz című kiadvány. „Csak akarni kell, és az ember elér oda, ahova álmaiban vágyott” - szól a Fadrusz-szállóige, onen örökre bevésődött a legújabb pozsonyi mese 12 éves főhősének, Takács Daninak a kobakjába. Megszívlelendő jó tanács, az biztos, és talán nem véletlen, hogy a szerző, Forgács Péter, aki ötvenévesen indult el az írói pályán, éppen ezt az idézetet emelte ki, mint meséje egyik fő tanulságát. A kötetet illusztrációi Réka Szabó és a szövegbe illesztett, teszik képmontázsok Fadrusz Teljes kötődő Jánoshoz, melyeknek köszönhetően úgy valóban érezhetjük, kissrác hetedikes lie Fadrusz-dossziéját két lapozgatnánk, Egy megspékelve izgalmas, Történelmi Szántai főleg detektívmesével kiskamaszoknak.

A harmadik bemutatott könyv A pozsonyi sétatéren megy a villamos címet viseli. Ez egy válogatás a www.pozsonyikifli.sk várostörténeti portál legérdekesebb írásaiból.

Mik szerepelnek a társulás tervei között?

Egyik legfőbb hosszú távú projektünk a városról szóló portálunk működtetése. Az ifj. Papp Sándor főszerkesztő irányításával működő www.pozsonyikifli.sk és annak szlovák megfelelője, a www.bratislavskerozky.sk olyan várostörténeti írásokat, képanyagot és adatbázist tartalmaz, oneneknek köszönhetően a hasonló pozsonyi kezdeményezések közül - a szlovák nyelvűeket is beleértve - az egyik legnogzá ű. Magyarul háromszáznál is több várostörténeti írást kínál.

A Kecskekapui temető hűs fái között (Photo: Pásztor Péter / Felvidék.ma)

Állandó rovatai mellett a portálon a szervezet örökségvédelmi tevékenységének (digitizáció, adatbázis-fejlesztés, virtuális kiállítás, interaktív térkép stb.) Eredménye is megtekinthető. E honlap része az Ortvay Adatbázis. Ortvay Tivadar helytörténész 1905-ben jelentette meg Pozsony város utcái és terei című munkáját, to improve more gyakran hivatkozunk, ugyanis ez egy részletes helytörténeti és városismereti összefoglaló. A benne felvonultatott tényanyagot mAs, kereshető olyan ötvözve adattár későbbi jött információkkal Letrem, the közterek és utcák amely megnevezésének például viszonylag gyakori - századi 20. főként of the Társadalmi ideologist hatalomváltással irányváltásokkal és kapcsolatos - követi módosulásait nyomon Három év az meghatározó száz elmúlt helyi másfél nyelvén, tehát németül, magyarul és szlovákul.

Örömmel mondhatom, hogy sok értékes írást sikerült hozzáférhetővé tennünk ezen a webes felületen, egy részük pedig a már említett, A pozsonyi sétatéren megy a villamos & # 8230 című válogatáskötetünkben is napvilágot látott. A közeljövőben szlovákul is szeretnénk megjelentetni hasonló kiadványt. Általánosságban pedig hosszú távú tervünk, vagy ha úgy tetszik, alapelvünk, hogy Pozsony múltját magyarul is bemutassuk.

A pozsonyi vár tövében (Photo: Pásztor Péter / Felvidék.ma)

Honnan jött a magyar városnézés kezdeményezése?

2014-ben jött egy felkérés a Pozsonyi Kifli elnökétől, Bolemant Évától, hogy tartsak magyar nyelvű városnézést. Ez volt az első, és arról szólt, milyen szerepet játszott Pozsony a magyar irodalomban.Azóta a szlovák tematikus városnéző séták mellett magyar nyelvűek is vannak, rendszerint úgy, hogy ezek egyike egyben a Csemadok által szervezett őszi Pozsonyi Városi Kulturális Napok magyar rendezvénysorozze.

Ezek a városnézések általában egy adopt tematikára épülnek. Mi a következő úti cél, melyek a központi témák?

A nyári szünet után idén még két magyar tematikus sétánk lesz. Szeptember 15-én Brandl Antal szobrászművész nyomát keressük Hornyák István idegenvezetővel, szeptember 22-én pedig nekem lesz egy városnézésem a száz esztendővel ezelőtt, 70 évesen elhunyt és a váetm. Az ezredévi ünnepségek egyik fő szorgalmazója, az egykori dévényi millenniumi emlékmű kezdeményezője és tulajdonképpeni megálmodója volt. Ez a séta része lesz a XXXIII. Pozsonyi Városi Kulturális Napok rendezvénysorozatának.

Szakszerű előadás Pozsony belvárosában (Photo: Pásztor Péter / Felvidék.ma)

Az elmúlt években mely témák köré összpontosultak a városnéző séták? Mi alapján választják ki ezeket?

A témaválasztásnál például nagy szerepet játszanak az évfordulók. Fadrusz Tavaly János (1858-1903) születési Kerek Kerek és halálozási fél idegenvezető évfordulója magyarul és István kapcsán szlovákul Hornyák is set to Tobbe közt tartott the Kolozsvári Matthias-MAR és nem szoborcsoportot létező 1921-bin-szoborcsoportot Maria Teresa szétvert alkotó Pozsonyi Fadruszról . Hornyák Mátyás király és Pozsony című sétája az uralkodó és Pozsony kapcsolatát elemezte. Benyovszky Mánya Ágnes helytörténész évről évre vezet magyar sétákat az első pozsonyi Duna-híd 1890-es megépítése és az első világháború közti - Pozsonyban belle epoque néven ismert - időszak gazdag építészeti. Brogyányi Mihály idegenvezető például a főúri rezidenciákban gazdag Pozsony palotáiról tartott előadást. Gaál Julianna idegenvezető a múlt század elején virágkorukat élő pozsonyi kávéházakat mutatta be, de volt sétája híres pozsonyi nőkről is. Széchenyi és Pozsony címmel magam tartottam sétát a nagy magyar reformerről.

Volt már túrám Petőfi Pozsonyáról, 1848/1849 helyi vonatkozásairól, a város protestáns hagyományairól vagy éppen Pozsony és a magyar irodalom kölcsönhatásairól. Idei első magyar nyelvű tematikus sétánkon a száz évvel ezelőtti, korábban inkább tabutémának számító 1919. február 12-i pozsonyi sortűzről volt szó. A „véres szerda” néven is ismert, több emberéletet követelő sortűz néhány héttel azután zajlott, hogy 1919. január elsején a város a csehszlovák legionáriusok kezére került. Mivel fontosnak tartjuk, hogy egy-egy ilyen témával a szlovák többséget is megszólítsuk, szlovák honismereti vezető collégámmal, Ivor Švihrannal közösen a tragédiáról és az 1919-es impériumvát.

Turisták gyűrűjében (Photo: Pásztor Péter / Felvidék.ma)

Milyen a tapasztalata a városnéző sétákkal kapcsolatban? Mennyire van igény erre a tevékenységre?

The main theme of Pozsonyban is egyre népszerűbbek, és ezt a Pozsonyi Kifli Polgári Társulás magyar nyelvű tematikus sétáin is lemérhetjük. Ezeket a sétákat render több tucatnyian látogatják - most már nemcsak pozsonyiak, hanem dél-szlovákiai és magyarországi magyarok, sőt magyarul értő szlovákok is. The "kereslet" természetesen more formed is megvan.

Aktív idegenvezető vagyok, és a buszos turistautak mellett nálam is egyre többen jelentkeznek azzal az igénnyel, hogy egyénileg, párban vagy kisebb csoporttal barangolnának a városban. Például házaspárok, átutazóban lévő üzletemberek is mind gyakrabban kérnek kalauzolást. Megtiszteltetés, hogy például a napokban a NATO Parlamenti Közgyűlése magyar küldöttségének tarthattam városnézést. Örülök, hogy hasonló tevékenységet fejt ki magyarul több nagyon felkészült collégám.

Mintha a városmarketinget formáló szervezetek is egyre inkább tudatosítanák, hogy a magyar vendéget is meg kell szólítani, méghozzá az anyanyelvén. Persze, a szolgáltatásoknak még van hová fejlődniük & # 8230


Volt egyszer egy Pozsonyi Hajósegylet (1862–1940) I.

Az idősebb pozsonyiak még emlékeznek arra a meseszerű neogótikus épületre, onen a Duna ligetfalui partján magaslott. A Pozsonyi Hajósegyletet az angol sportegyesületek mintájára alapították 1862-ben, székhelyét pedig 1895-ben adták át. Sajnos, a Szlovák nemzeti felkelés hídja építésekor ez a klubház is a városrombolás áldozata lett.

2020. szeptember 24-én mutatták be a Pozsonyi Kifli Polgári Társulás műhelyében készült legújabb kiadványt.

Volt egyszer egy Pozsonyi Hajósegylet (1862–1940)

  • A kötet szerkesztői: ifj. Papp Sándor is Korpás Árpád
  • Graphic artist: Szabó Réka
  • A kötet bemutatja: Samarjay Zoltán

A Pozsonyi Hajósegylet történetét az Aixinger család három generació - Aixinger László (1846–1904), fia, Aixinger László (1883–1944) is unokája, Aixinger László (1909–1989) - dolgozta fel. Összefoglalóik kiadványunkban teljes terjedelmükben, egymás után olvashatók abban a formában, ahogyan 1941-ben együtt is megjelentek.

A pozsonyi kordokumentum elé Kacsinecz Krisztián írása került, improves 2014-ben tett közzé a Pozsonyikifli.sk várostörténeti portal.

A hajósegylet épületét ábrázoló régi képeslapok mellett először jelennek meg nyomtatásban azok a különleges, nemrégiben digitalizált felvételek, migliorek a pozsonyi Holényi család hagyatékából kerültek el.

For more information, contact Paluska Flóránál at the following email address: [email protected]

The club of Új Híd (Nový most, Most SNP) epítésekor (1967–1972) bontották le. A műemlékvédők figyelembe vették az épület történelmi értékét, az egyes megjelölt és számozott darabokat az Oroszvári Földművelési Szövetkezet raktárhelyiségébe szállították megőrzésre. Innen azonban a 80-as évek második felében a faburkolatú falakat és az egyéb építőelemeket lassan szétlopkodták.


Video: MAGYAR ÉRTÉKTÁR - Pozsonyi kifli